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To verify the validity of a semiautomated surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance system using electronic screening algorithms in 38 categories of surgery.
A cohort study for validation of semiautomated SSI surveillance system using screening algorithms.
A 1,989-bed tertiary-care referral center in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
A dataset of 40,516 surgical procedures in 38 categories stored in the conventional SSI surveillance registry at the Samsung Medical Center between January 2013 and December 2014 was used as the reference standard. In the semiautomated surveillance system, electronic screening algorithms flagged cases meeting at least 1 of 3 criteria: antibiotic prescription, microbial culture, and infectious disease consultation. Flagged cases were audited by infection preventionists. Analyses of sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were conducted for the semiautomated surveillance system, and its effect on reducing the workload for chart review was evaluated.
A total of 575 SSI events (1·42%) were identified by conventional SSI surveillance. The sensitivity of the semiautomated SSI surveillance was 96·7%, and the PPV of the screening algorithms alone was 4·1%. Semiautomated SSI surveillance reduced the chart review workload of the infection preventionists from 1,283 to 482 person hours per year (a 62·4% decrease).
Compared to conventional surveillance, semiautomated surveillance using electronic screening algorithms followed by chart review of selected cases can provide high-validity surveillance results and can significantly reduce the workload of infection preventionists.
During the past decade, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged and spread across the world.1 The major carbapenemase enzymes currently being reported are KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP, and OXA.2 Because carbapenemase can be effectively transmitted via mobile genetic elements, and current therapeutic options for CPE infections are extremely limited, CPE may be one of the most serious contemporary threats to public health. However, very little is known about the characteristics of CPE carriage during hospitalization. The aims of this study were to investigate the clearance rate of CPE carriage and determine the number of consecutive negative cultures required to confirm CPE clearance. We also examined CPE transmission among hospitalized patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1361–1362
We aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adolescents and to determine parent–adolescent association in vitamin D status.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured using 125I-labelled RIA kits. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents was defined as 25(OH)D level <27·5 nmol/l, and 25(OH)D levels between 27·5 and <50 nmol/l were considered insufficient. For the parents, vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/l.
The study population consisted of 2062 adolescents (1095 boys, 967 girls; aged 10–18 years) and their parents (1005 fathers, 1341 mothers).
Overall, 13·4 % of adolescents (boys 11·7 %, girls 15·4 %) were 25(OH)D deficient, 54·7 % were 25(OH)D insufficient. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased with age (P < 0·0001). Parental vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in vitamin D-deficient adolescents than in non-deficient adolescents (all P < 0·0001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, predictors for vitamin D deficiency were senior high school students (OR = 3·45–4·33), winter/spring season (OR = 3·18–5·11/5·35–7·36) and parental vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1·78–4·88; all P < 0·05).
Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among healthy Korean adolescents and the parent–offspring association warrants vitamin D screening for family members of deficient individuals.
In this study, we synthesized ZnO nanowires using Au catalytic particles formed on a ZnO seed layer. We modulated the microstructure of the ZnO seed layer by changing the sputtering power to investigate how the underlying ZnO film microstructure affects the distribution of ZnO nanowires. Examining the samples after each of the three key steps of the growth process (ZnO seed layer deposition, Au catalytic particle formation, and nanowire growth) using various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction helped us illuminate the profound impacts of the grain size of the seed layer on the nanowire density.
This study examined the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3HT)- and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) with a pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) cathode interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode. The effect of inserting the cathode interfacial layer with different thicknesses was investigated. For the OSC samples with a 0.5 nm thick PMDA layer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was approximately 2.77% under 100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5) simulated illumination. It was suggested that the PMDA cathode interfacial layer acts as an exciton blocking layer, leading to an enhancement of the OSC performance.
During a survey of the prevalent subtypes of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in a university hospital in Korea, a nosocomial outbreak of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15 and OXA-30 β-lactamases was detected. The outbreak comprised various infections, including bloodstream infections and colonization, and persisted for several months in various areas of the hospital.