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Primitive whiteness refers to the atavistic and colonial violence of the appropriation of tattooing in the United States. The radical deviance of the tattooist and their canvas, read through queer forms of pathologized identities, illuminates what happens when this primitive whiteness is indeed queer.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Clinical Research Professional (CRP) shortages and high turnover rates directly impact the conduct of studies. A strategy for improving CRP retention is using Stay Interviews (SI), which are intentional exchanges between CRPs and leadership to enhance transparency and trust. Importantly, SIs are entirely separate from performance evaluations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Representatives from seven academic medical centers formed a collaborative workgroup (WG) as part of the Association for Clinical and Translational Science (ACTS) Clinical Research Professionals Taskforce (CRPT) Special Interest Group (SIG). The purpose of this workgroup was to develop a Stay Interview (SI) toolkit that will empower leadership to retain high quality staff by engaging employees in open and responsive conversations about motivations to stay in their current roles. Tools previously used by collaborating institutions were evaluated and aligned to establish a sharable guide for SI best practices. Training resources to support leaders in effectively using SI tools were also developed to accompany the toolkit. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Discussions of current tool use among group members highlighted 2 categorical use cases: continuous integration to promote workforce engagement and retention; and targeted use to address acute workforce challenges. The WG identified the need for a standardized conversation guide as well as leadership tools to support effective use of the guide. From the examples collated, the group crafted a 14 question SI guide with additional probing questions that can be tailored to the work environment. Questions fell into 4 key themes: likes/dislikes, motivations, workplace influence on work life, and professional development barriers and opportunities. Anecdotally, SI use in other industries suggests that wide adoption is likely to reduce CRP workforce turnover and improve job satisfaction. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: SIs are designed to build trust and strengthen relationships, fostering positive change by acknowledging issues, understanding motivations, and increasing engagement. Leaders can make immediate actions: clearing obstacles, providing new resources, and increasing recognition. Our next step is implementing a pilot to gather workforce metrics.
The COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic-related measures have impacted the lives and work-related activities of Antarctic researchers. To explore these impacts, we designed, piloted and disseminated an online survey in English, Russian, Spanish and Chinese in late 2020 and early 2021. The survey explored how the pandemic affected the productivity of Antarctic researchers, their career prospects and their mental wellbeing. Findings exposed patterns of inequities. For instance, of the 406 unique responses to the survey, women appeared to have been affected more adversely than men, especially in relation to mental health, and early-career researchers were disadvantaged more than their mid- or late-career colleagues. Overall, a third of the research participants reported at least one major negative impact from the pandemic on their mental health. Approximately half of the participants also mentioned that the COVID-19 pandemic had some positive effects, especially in terms of the advantages that working from home brought and opportunities to attend events, network or benefit from training workshops online. We conclude with a series of recommendations for science administrators and policymakers to mitigate the most serious adverse impacts of the pandemic on Antarctic research communities, with implications for other contexts where scientific activities are conducted under extreme circumstances.
The most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressant medication (ADM). Results are reported on frequency of ADM use, reasons for use, and perceived effectiveness of use in general population surveys across 20 countries.
Face-to-face interviews with community samples totaling n = 49 919 respondents in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys asked about ADM use anytime in the prior 12 months in conjunction with validated fully structured diagnostic interviews. Treatment questions were administered independently of diagnoses and asked of all respondents.
3.1% of respondents reported ADM use within the past 12 months. In high-income countries (HICs), depression (49.2%) and anxiety (36.4%) were the most common reasons for use. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), depression (38.4%) and sleep problems (31.9%) were the most common reasons for use. Prevalence of use was 2–4 times as high in HICs as LMICs across all examined diagnoses. Newer ADMs were proportionally used more often in HICs than LMICs. Across all conditions, ADMs were reported as very effective by 58.8% of users and somewhat effective by an additional 28.3% of users, with both proportions higher in LMICs than HICs. Neither ADM class nor reason for use was a significant predictor of perceived effectiveness.
ADMs are in widespread use and for a variety of conditions including but going beyond depression and anxiety. In a general population sample from multiple LMICs and HICs, ADMs were widely perceived to be either very or somewhat effective by the people who use them.
Utilizing a large (N = 739), ancestrally homogenous sample, the current study aimed to better understand biological risk processes involved in the development of depressive symptoms in maltreated, African American children age 8-12 years. Maltreatment was independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Self-reported depressive symptoms were attained in the context of a week-long, summer research camp. DNA was acquired from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for nine polymorphisms in four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-related genes: FKBP5, NR3C1, NR3C2, and CRHR1. Salivary cortisol samples were collected each morning (9 a.m.) and late afternoon (4 p.m.) throughout the week to assess HPA functioning. Results revealed that experiences of maltreatment beginning prior to age 5 were most predictive of depressive symptoms, whereas maltreatment onset after age 5 was most predictive of HPA axis dysregulation (blunted daytime cortisol patterns). Multigenic risk did not relate to HPA functioning, nor did it moderate the relationship between maltreatment and HPA activity. There was no mediation of the relationship between maltreatment and depressive symptoms by HPA dysfunction. Results are interpreted through a developmental psychopathology lens, emphasizing the principle of equifinality while carefully appraising racial differences. Implications for future research, particularly the need for longitudinal studies, and important methodological considerations are discussed.
The AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) conducts clinical trials of therapeutic and prevention strategies for cancer in people living with HIV. With its recent expansion to Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, there was a need to increase the competence of clinical investigators (CIs) to implement clinical trials in these regions.
AMC CIs were invited to complete a survey to assess role-relevance and self-perceived competence based on the Joint Task Force for Clinical Trials Competency domains.
A total of 40 AMC CIs were invited to complete the questionnaire and 35 responded to the survey. The data management and informatics and engaging with communities’ domains were lowest in the average proportion of CIs rating themselves high (scores of 3–4) for self-perceived competency (46.6% and 44.2%) and role-relevance (61.6% and 67.5%), whereas, the ethical and participant safety considerations domain resulted in the highest score for competency (86.6%) and role-relevance (93.3%). In the scientific concepts and research design domain, a high proportion rated for competency in evaluating study designs and scientific literature (71.4% and 74.3%) but a low proportion for competency for designing trials and specimen collection protocols (51.4% and 54.3%).
Given the complexity of AMC clinical research, these results provide evidence of the need to develop training for clinical research professionals across domains where self-perceived competence is low. This assessment will be used to tailor and prioritize the AMC Training Program in clinical trial development and management for AMC CIs.
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Using effect sizes, clinically meaningful moderator effects were found only within the CGH. Greater combat exposure was associated with decreased CGH fractional anisotropy (overall structural integrity) and increased CGH radial diffusivity (perpendicular water diffusivity) among individuals with more severe childhood maltreatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the moderating effect of childhood maltreatment on the relationship between combat exposure and CGH structural integrity. These differences in CGH structural integrity could have maladaptive implications for emotion and memory, as well as provide a potential mechanism by which childhood maltreatment induces vulnerability to later life trauma exposure.
Behavioral disturbances are common but serious symptoms in patients with dementia. Currently, there are no FDA approved drugs for this purpose. There have been case reports and small case series of the use of buspirone. In this retrospective study, we review 179 patients prescribed buspirone for treatment of behavioral disturbance in dementia to better characterize the efficacy and potential side effects. All patients prescribed buspirone for behavioral disturbance due to dementia from a geropsychiatric outreach program were reviewed. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS. One hundred-seventy-nine patients met criteria for the study with a mean age of 83.8 + 7. Alzheimer's dementia was the most common dementia (n = 61; 34.1%) followed by mixed dementia (n = 50, 27.9%) then vascular type (n = 31; 17.3%). Behavioral disturbances were mainly verbal aggression (n = 125; 69.8%), and physical aggression (n = 116; 64.8%). Using the Clinical Global Impression scale, 68.6% of patients responded to buspirone, with 41.8% being moderately to markedly improved. The mean dose of buspirone was 25.7 mg ± 12.50. Buspirone appears to be effective in treating behavioral disturbances in dementia. Future prospective and double blinded studies are needed.
To examine the extent to which the gendered division of labour persists within households in the USA in regard to meal planning/preparation and food shopping activities.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data.
2007–2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Sub-sample of 3195 adults at least 20 years old who had a spouse or partner.
Analyses revealed that the majority of women and men reported they shared in both meal planning/preparing and food shopping activities (meal planning/preparation: women 54 % and men 56 %; food shopping: women 60 % and men 57 %). Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared with men, women were more likely to take primary responsibility than to share this responsibility and less likely to report having no responsibility for these tasks. Gender differences were observed for age/cohort, education and household size.
This study may have implications for public health nutritional initiatives and the well-being of families in the USA.
J. David Singer, a globally recognized scholar of international politics, died Monday, December 28, 2009, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He was involved in an auto accident on September 22 and had been hospitalized since. At the time of his death, Singer was Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan, where he'd been on the faculty from 1958 until retiring in 2002. He was 84 years old.
IN AN 18 JUNE 1798 LETTER TO August Wilhelm Schlegel, Goethe praised the Berlin composer Carl Friedrich Zelter for the quality of his musical settings, which, according to Goethe, were inspired not in some imaginative moment originating outside the text (“ein Einfall”), but rather conceived as a radical reproduction of poetic intentions. A year later when he wrote to Zelter for the first time, Goethe sought to provide him with a poetic text that would capitalize on his talents. He enclosed the ballad “Die erste Walpurgisnacht,” which he had completed only four weeks earlier.
Goethe had rather high hopes for his somewhat strange poem with its Germanic druids and Christian oppressors and its historical explanation for the creation of the Walpurgisnacht legend. He was keenly interested in its potential as a text for musical setting. In his letter to Zelter, Goethe suggested that the dramatic ballad—that is, a ballad without a narrative voice, a poem whose tale is told fully through interactive dialogue—might be so crafted to serve as the text for a large-scale choral composition. He offered “Die erste Walpurgisnacht” for experimental setting:
Ich lege eine Produktion bei, die ein etwas seltsames Ansehen hat. Sie ist durch den Gedanken entstanden: ob man nicht die dramatischen Balladen so ausbilden könnte daß sie zu einem größern Singstück dem Komponisten Stoff gäben. Leider hat die gegenwärtige nicht Würde genug um einen so großen Aufwand zu verdienen.
(26 August 1799)
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