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Aphids exhibit seasonally alternating asexual and sexual reproductive modes. Different morphs are produced throughout the life cycle. To evaluate morph-specific fitness during reproductive switching, holocyclic Sitobion avenae were induced continuously under short light conditions, and development and reproduction were compared in each morph. Seven morphs, including apterous and alate virginoparae, apterous and alate sexuparae, oviparae, males, and fundatrices, were produced during the life cycle. The greatest proportions of sexuparae, oviparae, males, and virginoparae were in the G1, G2, G3, and G4 generations, respectively. Regardless of asexual or sexual morphs, alate morphs exhibited a marked delay in age at maturity compared with that of apterous morphs. Among the alate morphs, males had the longest age at maturity, followed by sexuparae and virginoparae. Among the apterous morphs, sexuparae were older at maturity than the fundatrices, virginoparae, and oviparae. The nymphs of each morph had equal survival potentials. For the same wing morphs, apterous sexuparae and oviparae exhibited substantial delays in the pre-reproductive period and considerable reductions in fecundity, compared with those of apterous virginoparae and fundatrices, whereas alate sexuparae and alate virginoparae had similar fecundity. The seven morphs exhibited Deevey I survivorship throughout the life cycle. These results suggest that sexual production, particularly in males, has short-term development and reproduction costs. The coexistence of sexual and asexual morphs in sexuparae offspring may be regarded as an adaptive strategy for limiting the risk of low fitness in winter.
As the main global terrestrial ecosystem component, grasslands are extremely sensitive to global climate change. With increasing human activities over the last century, grassland ecosystems have been degraded to different degrees. However, the evolution of lake-grassland ecosystems in recent centuries remains unclear due to the dearth of high-resolution records. Here, we present high-resolution lacustrine sediment grain size, pollen (Artemisia, Myriophyllum), Pediastrum, and n-alkane records from Ganggeng Nur Lake to investigate vegetation, lake evolution, and human effects in semiarid northern China. Four stages were identified from the last ca. 150 years: (1) the natural evolution stage (AD 1870–1945), in which there was a wet climate around Ganggeng Nur and the lake level rose from increased runoff; (2) the human disturbance stage (AD 1945–1967), in which the regional climate got drier and human activities began having a detectable effect on the grassland ecosystem; (3) the human transformation stage (AD 1967–2005), in which a completely arid climate coupled with the implementation of a series of land reclamation policies resulted in a large reduction in grassland areas, extensive soil erosion, exacerbated climate change, and shrinking lake areas; and (4) the posttreatment stage (AD 2005–2018), in which soil erosion was alleviated by policy implementation and a favorable humid climate.
Iodine is a vital trace element in the human body and is associated with several important coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. We aimed to explore the correlation between urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and CAD. Data from 15 793 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2018) were analysed. We conducted multivariable logistic regression models and fitted smoothing curves to study the correlation between UIC and CAD. Furthermore, we performed subgroup analysis to investigate possible effect modifiers between them. We found a J-shaped association between UIC and CAD, with an inflection point at Lg UIC = 2·65 μg/l. This result indicated a neutral association (OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·68, 1·16) between UIC and CAD as Lg UIC < 2·65 μg/l, but the per natural Lg [UIC] increment was OR 2·29; 95 % CI 1·53, 3·43 as Lg UIC ≥ 2·65 μg/l. An interaction between diabetes and UIC might exist. The increase in UIC results in an increase in CAD prevalence (OR 1·84, 95 % CI 1·32, 2·58) in diabetes but results in little to no difference in non-diabetes (OR 0·98, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·25). The J-shaped correlation between UIC and CAD and the interaction between diabetes and UIC should be confirmed in a prospective study with a series of UIC measurements. If excessive iodine precedes CAD, then this new finding could guide clinical practice and prevent iodine deficiency from being overcorrected.
As an effective drag reduction and thermal protection technology, the opposing jet can guarantee the flight safety of the hypersonic vehicle. In this paper, the jet mode transition is realised by controlling the total jet pressure ratio value (PR) with a function. The jet mode transition from the long penetration mode (LPM) to the short penetration mode (SPM) uses an increasing function. However, the jet mode transition from SPM to LPM uses a decreasing function. The flow field reconstruction process of a two-dimensional axisymmetric blunt body model in the hypersonic flow is studied when the jet mode transition between SPM and LPM changes into each other. The flow field structures and wall parameters of the LPM and SPM transition processes are obtained. The results indicate that the drag and Stanton number both decrease in the transition stage from LPM to SPM, and this is beneficial for the improvement of the drag reduction and thermal protection effect. The peak values of drag and Stanton number fall by 36.39% and 46.40%, respectively. When the jet mode transforms from SPM to LPM, the Stanton number increases, and the drag force first increases and then decreases. However, the final drag reduction effect is not obvious. With the increase in the change rate of the total pressure ratio of the two jet transformation modes, the jet mode transition time is advanced, and the flow field changes more violently.
The development of high-intensity ultrafast laser facilities provides the possibility to create novel physical phenomena and matter states. The timing fluctuation of the laser pulses is crucial for pump–probe experiments, which is one of the vital means to observe the ultrafast dynamics driven by intense laser pulses. In this paper, we demonstrate the timing fluctuation characterization and control of the front end of a 100-PW laser that is composed of a high-contrast optical parametric amplifier (seed) and a 200-TW optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (preamplifier). By combining the timing jitter measurement with a feedback system, the laser seed and preamplifier are synchronized to the reference with timing fluctuations of 1.82 and 4.48 fs, respectively. The timing system will be a key prerequisite for the stable operation of 100-PW laser facilities and provide the basis for potential pump–probe experiments performed on the laser.
Little has been done to comprehensively study the relationships between multiple well-being constructs at a time. Even less is known about whether child maltreatment and major depressive disorder (MDD) impact different well-being constructs. This study aims to examine whether maltreated or depressed individuals have specific impacts on well-being structures.
Data analyzed were from the Montreal South-West Longitudinal Catchment Area Study (N = 1380). The potential confounding of age and sex was controlled by propensity score matching. We used network analysis to assess the impact of maltreatment and MDD on well-being. The centrality of nodes was estimated with the ‘strength’ index and a case-dropping bootstrap procedure was used to test network stability. Differences in the structure and connectivity of networks between different studied groups were also examined.
Autonomy and daily life and social relations were the most central nodes for the MDD and maltreated groups [MDD group: strength coefficient (SC)autonomy = 1.50; SCdaily life and social relations = 1.34; maltreated group: SCautonomy = 1.69; SCdaily life and social relations = 1.55]. Both maltreatment and MDD groups had statistical differences in terms of the global strength of interconnectivity in their networks. Network invariance differed between with and without MDD groups indicating different structures of their networks. The non-maltreatment and MDD group had the highest level of overall connectivity.
We discovered distinct connectivity patterns of well-being outcomes in maltreatment and MDD groups. The identified core constructs could serve as potential targets to maximize the effectiveness of clinical management of MDD and also advance prevention to minimize the sequelae of maltreatment.
We report here the first hundred-watt continuous wave fiber gas laser in H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by stimulated Raman scattering. The pump source is a homemade narrow-linewidth fiber oscillator with a 3 dB linewidth of 0.15 nm at the maximum output power of 380 W. To efficiently and stably couple several-hundred-watt pump power into the hollow core and seal the gas, a hollow-core fiber end-cap is fabricated and used at the input end. A maximum power of 110 W at 1153 nm is obtained in a 5 m long hollow-core PCF filled with 36 bar H2, and the conversion efficiency of the first Stokes power is around 48.9%. This work paves the way for high-power fiber gas Raman lasers.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
This paper explores the effect of fiscal policy on the welfare of heterogeneous agents with different income sources over the business cycle. Policy experiments allow the government to choose the cyclical properties of fiscal policy instruments conditional on long-run levels to separately maximize the welfare of entrepreneurs and workers. This policy choice creates welfare conflicts between the two groups, which is confirmed by empirical evidence. The government maximizes workers’ welfare by choosing procyclical capital income tax rates and countercyclical labor income tax rates while it optimizes entrepreneurs’ welfare with countercyclical capital income tax rates and strongly countercyclical labor income tax rates. The socially optimal policy is a tradeoff between the welfare of entrepreneurs and workers. The welfare conflict holds when the government modifies the cyclical behavior of policy in a crisis, or it adjusts the long-run level and cyclical behavior at the same time.
Exploring reliable hydrogenation catalysts to remove trace olefins in aromatic hydrocarbons through hydrogenation is an important topic. In this paper, a bimetallic Cu–Ru/montmorillonite (Cu–Ru/M) catalyst was prepared using a step-by-step impregnation method, and the effects of bimetallic catalysts on removing olefins were assessed. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and temperature-programmed reduction of H2. The results show that there is a strong interaction between Cu and Ru on the Cu–Ru/M catalyst, which improves the dispersion of the metals on the surface of the support M. The hydrogen spillover phenomenon of Cu–Ru/M enhances its activity and adsorption capacity for hydrogen species. The catalytic performance test confirmed that the bimetallic catalyst has significantly greater activity and stability. The optimal loadings are 5% copper and 1% ruthenium, and the performance of this catalyst is comparable to those of noble-metal Pt/M catalysts.
This study aimed to examine the independent roles of various childhood maltreatment (CM) subtypes in the development of depression; quantify the joint mediation effect of social support and mastery in the association between subtypes of CM and depression and examine the additional contribution of mastery beyond the effect that is operating through social support to this relationship.
Data analysed were from the Zone d’Épidémiologie Psychiatrique du Sud-Ouest de Montréal, an ongoing longitudinal population-based study. In total, 1351 participants with complete information on the studied variables were included. The propensity score matching and inverse-probability weighted regression adjustment estimation methods were used to minimise the potential confounding in the relationship between CM and major depression. We then used inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation to estimate the direct effects of maltreatment and indirect effects of social support and mastery.
We found that exposures to all maltreatment subtypes increased the risk of subsequent depression. The joint mediating effect of social support and mastery explained 37.63–46.97% of the association between different maltreatment subtypes and depression. The contribution of these two mediators differed by maltreatment subtypes, with social support being the major contributor to the mediating effect.
The findings of the study not only provide scientific evidence on the importance of psychosocial attributes in the development of major depression but also suggest that prevention and invention strategies should focus on these psychosocial attributes to effectively break the vicious cycle of CM on major depression.
To integrate the uneven terrain adaptivity of legged robots and the fast capacity of wheeled robots on even terrains, a four wheel-legged robot is addressed and the cooperative control strategy of wheels and legs based on attitude balance is investigated. Firstly, the kinematics of wheel-legged robot is analyzed, which contains the legged and wheeled motion modal. Secondly, the cooperative control strategy of wheel-legged robot based on attitude balance is proposed. The attitude is calculated by using the quaternion method and complementary filtering, and the attitude stability control of the wheel-legged robot is studied. The trajectory planning of leg motion including walk and trot gait is implemented, and the differential control of wheeled motion is deduced. And then, the cooperative motion control of wheels and legs is achieved by keeping the attitude balance of robot body. Finally, a small prototype is set up to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed method. The experimental results show that the established wheel-legged robot can do walk, trot, and wheel-leg compound motion to overcome many complex terrains and environments.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
This study aimed to articulate the roles of social support and coping strategies in the relation between childhood maltreatment (CM) and subsequent major depressive disorder (MDD) with a comprehensive exploration of potential factors in a longitudinal community-based cohort. Parallel and serial mediation analyses were applied to estimate the direct effect (DE) (from CM to MDD) and indirect effects (from CM to MDD through social support and coping strategies, simultaneously and sequentially). Sociodemographic characteristics and genetic predispositions of MDD were considered in the modeling process. A total of 902 participants were included in the analyses. CM was significantly associated with MDD (DE coefficient (β) = 0.015, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.002∼0.028). This relation was partially mediated by social support (indirect β = 0.004, 95% CI = 0.0001∼0.008) and negative coping (indirect β = 0.013, 95% CI = 0.008∼0.020), respectively. Social support, positive coping, and negative coping also influenced each other and collectively mediated the association between CM and MDD. This study provides robust evidence that although CM has a detrimental effect on later-on MDD, social support and coping strategies could be viable solutions to minimize the risk of MDD. Intervention and prevention programs should primarily focus on weakening negative coping strategies, then strengthening social support and positive coping strategies.
Traditional belief revision usually considers generic logic formulas, whilst in practical applications some formulas might even be inappropriate for beliefs. For instance, the formula
$p \wedge q$
is syntactically consistent and is also an acceptable belief when there are no restrictions, but it might become unacceptable under restrictions in some context. If we assume that p represents ‘manufacturing product A’ and q represents ‘manufacturing product B’, an example of such a context would be the knowledge that there are not enough resources to manufacture them both and, hence,
$p \wedge q$
would not be an acceptable belief. In this article, we propose a generic framework for belief revision under restrictions. We consider restrictions of either fixed or dynamic nature, and devise several postulates to characterize the behaviour of changing beliefs when new evidence emerges or the restriction changes. Moreover, we show that there is a representation theorem for each type of restriction. Finally, we discuss belief revision of qualitative spatio-temporal information under restrictions as an application of this new framework.