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Recent evidence from case reports suggests that a ketogenic diet may be effective for bipolar disorder. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to date.
To assess the recruitment and feasibility of a ketogenic diet intervention in bipolar disorder.
Euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder were recruited to a 6–8 week trial of a modified ketogenic diet, and a range of clinical, economic and functional outcome measures were assessed. Study registration number: ISRCTN61613198.
Of 27 recruited participants, 26 commenced and 20 completed the modified ketogenic diet for 6–8 weeks. The outcomes data-set was 95% complete for daily ketone measures, 95% complete for daily glucose measures and 95% complete for daily ecological momentary assessment of symptoms during the intervention period. Mean daily blood ketone readings were 1.3 mmol/L (s.d. = 0.77, median = 1.1) during the intervention period, and 91% of all readings indicated ketosis, suggesting a high degree of adherence to the diet. Over 91% of daily blood glucose readings were within normal range, with 9% indicating mild hypoglycaemia. Eleven minor adverse events were recorded, including fatigue, constipation, drowsiness and hunger. One serious adverse event was reported (euglycemic ketoacidosis in a participant taking SGLT2-inhibitor medication).
The recruitment and retention of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder to a 6–8 week ketogenic diet intervention was feasible, with high completion rates for outcome measures. The majority of participants reached and maintained ketosis, and adverse events were generally mild and modifiable. A future randomised controlled trial is now warranted.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Human infection with antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter species is an important public health concern due to the potentially increased severity of illness and risk of death. Our objective was to synthesise the knowledge of factors associated with human infections with antimicrobial-resistant strains of Campylobacter. This scoping review followed systematic methods, including a protocol developed a priori. Comprehensive literature searches were developed in consultation with a research librarian and performed in five primary and three grey literature databases. Criteria for inclusion were analytical and English-language publications investigating human infections with an antimicrobial-resistant (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and/or quinolones) Campylobacter that reported factors potentially linked with the infection. The primary and secondary screening were completed by two independent reviewers using Distiller SR®. The search identified 8,527 unique articles and included 27 articles in the review. Factors were broadly categorised into animal contact, prior antimicrobial use, participant characteristics, food consumption and handling, travel, underlying health conditions, and water consumption/exposure. Important factors linked to an increased risk of infection with a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain included foreign travel and prior antimicrobial use. Identifying consistent risk factors was challenging due to the heterogeneity of results, inconsistent analysis, and the lack of data in low- and middle-income countries, highlighting the need for future research.
Infants and children born with CHD are at significant risk for neurodevelopmental delays and abnormalities. Individualised developmental care is widely recognised as best practice to support early neurodevelopment for medically fragile infants born premature or requiring surgical intervention after birth. However, wide variability in clinical practice is consistently demonstrated in units caring for infants with CHD. The Cardiac Newborn Neuroprotective Network, a Special Interest Group of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative, formed a working group of experts to create an evidence-based developmental care pathway to guide clinical practice in hospital settings caring for infants with CHD. The clinical pathway, “Developmental Care Pathway for Hospitalized Infants with Congenital Heart Disease,” includes recommendations for standardised developmental assessment, parent mental health screening, and the implementation of a daily developmental care bundle, which incorporates individualised assessments and interventions tailored to meet the needs of this unique infant population and their families. Hospitals caring for infants with CHD are encouraged to adopt this developmental care pathway and track metrics and outcomes using a quality improvement framework.
Despite an elevated risk of psychopathology stemming from COVID-19-related stress, many essential workers stigmatise and avoid psychiatric care. This randomised controlled trial was designed to compare five versions of a social-contact-based brief video intervention for essential workers, differing by protagonist gender and race/ethnicity.
We examined intervention efficacy on treatment-related stigma (‘stigma’) and openness to seeking treatment (‘openness’), especially among workers who had not received prior mental healthcare. We assessed effectiveness and whether viewer/protagonist demographic concordance heightened effectiveness.
Essential workers (N = 2734) randomly viewed a control video or brief video of an actor portraying an essential worker describing hardships, COVID-related anxiety and depression, and psychotherapy benefits. Five video versions (Black/Latinx/White and male/female) followed an identical 3 min script. Half the intervention group participants rewatched their video 14 days later. Stigma and openness were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at 14- and 30-day follow-ups. Trial registration: NCT04964570.
All video intervention groups reported immediately decreased stigma (P < 0.0001; Cohen's d = 0.10) and increased openness (P < 0.0001; d = 0.23). The initial increase in openness was largely maintained in the repeated-video group at day 14 (P < 0.0001; d = 0.18), particularly among viewers without history of psychiatric treatment (P < 0.0001; d = 0.32). Increases were not sustained at follow-up. Female participants viewing a female protagonist and Black participants viewing a Black protagonist demonstrated greater openness than other demographic pairings.
Brief video-based interventions improved immediate stigma and openness. Greater effects among female and Black individuals viewing demographically matched protagonists emphasise the value of tailored interventions, especially for socially oppressed groups. This easily disseminated intervention may proactively increase care-seeking, encouraging treatment among workers in need. Future studies should examine intervention mechanisms and whether linking referrals to psychiatric services generates treatment-seeking.
Predictive models of aboveground plant biomass derived from nondestructive measurements greatly assist in monitoring and surveying natural areas. Where invasive species are concerned, these models can provide insights to the impacts of invasions and efficacy of management strategies. Furthermore, tools that facilitate a rapid inventory allow for multiple assessments of impact over larger areas. Downy rose myrtle [Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk.] is an invasive shrub in Florida and Hawaii that is native to southeastern Asia. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa was imported into Florida in the early 20th century through the ornamental plant trade and produces pink flowers and edible purple globe fruits. This woody shrub is particularly problematic in the understory of Florida’s mesic pine forests, where it forms dense, impenetrable thickets. To characterize the populations more accurately in Florida and build predictive equations for biomass that could be used to inform control methods, we established a network of sites from which we harvested individuals over 3 yr. Based on these measurements, we built a simple predictive equation for R. tomentosa dry biomass. Crown area strongly associates with biomass in a linear relationship (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.82). Fruit production is highly variable, but positively correlates to plant height in individuals that have reached reproductive size (plants below 1 m generally do not produce fruit), albeit weakly (P < 0.002, R2 = 0.27). We demonstrate here that two simple measurements—height and crown area—can accurately predict biomass and, to some degree, fruit production for R. tomentosa in Florida and may guide control methods by focusing on removing individuals larger than 1 m tall.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD, n – 12) were compared with those of healthy age-matched controls (n = 12). The intensity and amount of facial expression in PD patients were expected to be reduced for spontaneous but not posed expressions. Emotional stimuli were video clips selected from films, 2–5 min in duration, designed to elicit feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, or anger. Facial movements were coded using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In addition, participants rated their emotional experience on 9-point Likert scales. The PD group showed significantly less overall facial reactivity than did controls when viewing the films. The predicted Group X Condition (spontaneous vs. posed) interaction effect on smile intensity was found when PD participants with more severe disease were compared with those with milder disease and with controls. In contrast, ratings of emotional experience were similar for both groups. Depression was positively associated with emotion ratings, but not with measures of facial activity. Spontaneous facial expression appears to be selectively affected in PD, whereas posed expression and emotional experience remain relatively intact. (JINS, 1996, 2, 383–391.)
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