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Pomegranate peel is an agro-industrial residue obtained after fruit processing with high total polyphenol (TP) content, making it an attractive by-product for its reuse. Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and its bioactive compounds have shown positive effects on obesity models. Effects on favouring mitochondrial biogenesis and function have also been described. However, once phenolic compounds are extracted, their stability can be affected by diverse factors. Microencapsulation could improve PPE stability, allowing its incorporation into functional foods. Nevertheless, studies on the potential biological effects of PPE microparticles (MPPE) in obesity models are lacking. This study aims to evaluate the effect of MPPE on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial structure and function and metabolic alterations related to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). PPE was microencapsulated by spray drying using inulin (IN) as a wall material and physically–chemically characterised. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n 40) were randomly distributed into five groups: control diet (CD), HFD, HFD + IN, HFD + PPE (50 mg/kg per d TP) and HFD + MPPE (50 mg/kg per d TP), for 14 weeks. A glucose tolerance test and indirect calorimetry were conducted. Blood and adipose tissue samples were obtained. MPPE supplementation prevented HFD-induced body weight gain (P < 0·001), fasting glycaemia (P = 0·007) and total cholesterol rise (P = 0·001). MPPE resulted in higher BAT mitochondrial complex IV activity (P = 0·03) and prevented HFD-induced mitochondrial cristae alteration (P = 0·02). In conclusion, MPPE prevented HFD-induced excessive body weight gain and associated metabolic disturbances, potentially by activating complex IV activity and preserving mitochondrial cristae structure in BAT in mice fed with a HFD.
Neurologic disease is commonly encountered in the population infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although HIV-1 is responsible for many of these neurologic complications, other organisms will affect the nervous system as the immune deficiency state progresses. With the wide use of potent antiretroviral therapy, the mortality from and incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons with advanced HIV-1 infection has decreased. Nevertheless, these diseases are still seen frequently, especially among those with limited access to new antiretroviral therapies. Therefore, it remains important to recognize the most common OIs of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as primary CNS lymphoma, which will be the focus of this review.
The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–associated cognitive-motor disorder—either minor cognitive-motor disorder (MCMD) or HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)—is fraught with potential pitfalls for the clinician. Before making such a diagnosis, clinicians should exclude other etiologies by using neuroimaging, lumbar puncture, and serum chemistries to screen for opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections of the brain and meninges. Clinicians should also consider psychoneurotoxicity (caused from the use of psychoactive substances and prescribed medications) and psychopathology, such as mood, anxiety, and other disorders. In addition, a thorough medical history and physical examination, including a complete neurologic and neuropsychiatric mental status examination, are necessary for an accurate diagnosis. There is also a need for standardized neuropsychological and functional status tests, since the diagnostic criteria for these disorders are partly based on these criteria. Treatment targets should include subclinical cognitive-motor impairment and neuroprotection, as well as MCMD and HAD. Currently, zidovudine remains the best proven treatment for these disorders, but other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, show promise, and selected agents from these classes are being tested in clinical trials. Other areas that should be investigated are the modulation of inflammatory mediators (such as tumor necrosis factor α), neurotransmitter manipulation (especially of dopamine), and nutritional interventions.
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