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An understanding of anatomy is paramount to the ability to safely anesthetize the head and neck surgery patient. The basic underlying structure of the face is formed by the skull, facial bones and mandible. The cochlear hair cells activate the cochlear nerve, resulting in hearing transmission. The labyrinthine and tympanic portions of the facial nerve lie in close proximity to these structures and may be dehiscent, necessitating lack of neuromuscular blockade and close monitoring of facial movements during certain otologic procedures. The nose projects from the face largely based on the amount of cartilage. The oral cavity therefore includes the lips, buccal mucosa, maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges/teeth/gingiva, floor of the mouth, hard palate, the retromolar trigone and the anterior oral tongue. Neck anatomy can be significantly altered by cancer or cancer treatments including surgery and radiation or chemoradiation therapy.
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, optimized for producing x-rays from undulators. Such undulator sources provide extremely bright, quasi-monochromatic radiation which is ideal for an x-ray microprobe. Such microprobes can be used for trace element quantification with x-ray fluorescence, or for chemical state determination with x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) sector at the APS is building an x-ray microprobe for research in earth, planetary, soil and environmental sciences.
The GSECARS undulator source is a standard APS Undulator “A” which is a 3.3 cm period device with 72 periods. The energies of the undulator peaks can be varied by adjusting the gap, and hence the magnetic field of the undulator. The energy of the first harmonic can be varied in this way from approximately 3.1 keV to 14 keV. A measured undulator spectrum is shown in Figure 1.
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