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To characterize antifungal prescribing patterns, including the indication for antifungal use, in hospitalized children across the United States.
We analyzed antifungal prescribing data from 32 hospitals that participated in the SHARPS Antibiotic Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy among Children (SHARPEC) study, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey conducted between June 2016 and December 2017.
Inpatients aged <18 years with an active systemic antifungal order were included in the analysis. We classified antifungal prescribing by indication (ie, prophylaxis, empiric, targeted), and we compared the proportion of patients in each category based on patient and antifungal characteristics.
Among 34,927 surveyed patients, 2,095 (6%) received at least 1 systemic antifungal and there were 2,207 antifungal prescriptions. Most patients had an underlying oncology or bone marrow transplant diagnosis (57%) or were premature (13%). The most prescribed antifungal was fluconazole (48%) and the most common indication for antifungal use was prophylaxis (64%). Of 2,095 patients receiving antifungals, 79 (4%) were prescribed >1 antifungal, most often as targeted therapy (48%). The antifungal prescribing rate ranged from 13.6 to 131.2 antifungals per 1,000 patients across hospitals (P < .001).
Most antifungal use in hospitalized children was for prophylaxis, and the rate of antifungal prescribing varied significantly across hospitals. Potential targets for antifungal stewardship efforts include high-risk, high-utilization populations, such as oncology and bone marrow transplant patients, and specific patterns of utilization, including prophylactic and combination antifungal therapy.
Using a mixed-methods approach, we assessed the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in Colorado hospitals. ASP leaders reported decreased time and resources, reduced rigor of stewardship interventions, inability to complete new initiatives, and interpersonal challenges. Stewardship activities may be threatened during times of acute resource pressure.
To characterize the current state of antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions of antifungal use among pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs).
We developed and distributed an electronic survey, which included 17 closed-ended questions about institutional antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions, among pediatric ASPs.
ASP physicians and pharmacists of 74 hospitals participating in the multicenter Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.
We sent surveys to 74 hospitals and received 68 unique responses, for a response rate of 92%. Overall, 63 of 68 the respondent ASPs (93%) reported that they conduct 1 or more antifungal stewardship activities. Of these 68 hospital ASPs, 43 (63%) perform prospective audit and feedback (PAF) of antifungals. The most common reasons reported for not performing PAF of antifungals were not enough time or resources (19 of 25, 76%) and minimal institutional antifungal use (6 of 25, 24%). Also, 52 hospitals (76%) require preauthorization for 1 or more antifungal agents. The most commonly restricted antifungals were isavuconazole (42 of 52 hospitals, 80%) and posaconazole (39 of 52 hospitals, 75%). Furthermore, 33 ASPs (48%) agreed or strongly agreed that antifungals are inappropriately used at their institution, and only 25 of 68 (37%) of ASPs felt very confident making recommendations about antifungals.
Most pediatric ASPs steward antifungals, but the strategies employed are highly variable across surveyed institutions. Although nearly half of respondents identified inappropriate antifungal use as a problem at their institution, most ASPs do not feel confident making recommendations about antifungals. Future studies are needed to determine the rate of inappropriate antifungal use and the best antifungal stewardship strategies.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Standard metrics for antimicrobial use consider volume but not spectrum of antimicrobial prescribing. We developed an antibiotic spectrum index (ASI) to classify commonly used antibiotics based on activity against important pathogens. The application of this index to hospital antibiotic use reveals how this tool enhances current antimicrobial stewardship metrics.
We analyzed antifungal and antiviral prescribing among high-risk children across freestanding children’s hospitals. Antifungal and antiviral days of therapy varied across hospitals. Benchmarking antifungal and antiviral use and developing antimicrobial stewardship strategies to optimize use of these high cost agents is needed.
We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to assess the use of antibiotics reserved for the treatment of resistant Gram-negative infections in children from 2004 to 2014. Overall, use of these agents increased in children from 2004 to 2007 and subsequently decreased.
We analyzed the cost of antimicrobial prescribing across freestanding children’s hospitals. A few specific antimicrobials accounted for a large proportion of expenditures, and antimicrobial spending varied substantially across hospitals, even within specific clinical conditions. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should consider these data to incorporate high-value antimicrobial prescribing when clinically appropriate.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1242–1244
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are recommended to optimize antimicrobial use for hospitalized patients. Although mechanisms for the implementation of ASPs have been described, data-driven approaches to prioritize specific conditions and antimicrobials for intervention have not been established. We aimed to develop a strategy for identifying high-impact targets for antimicrobial stewardship efforts.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Setting and Patients.
Children admitted to 32 freestanding children's hospitals in the United States in 2010.
We identified the conditions with the largest proportional contribution to the total days of antibiotic therapy prescribed to all hospitalized children. For the 4 highest-using conditions, we examined variability between hospitals in antibiotic selection patterns for use of either first- or second-line therapies depending on the condition. Antibiotic use was determined using standardized probability of exposure to selected agents and standardized days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days, adjusting for patient demographics and severity of illness.
In 2010, 524,364 children received 2,082,929 days of antibiotic therapy. Surgical patients received 43% of all antibiotics. The 4 highest-using conditions—pneumonia, appendicitis, cystic fibrosis, and skin and soft-tissue infection—represent 1% of all conditions yet accounted for more than 10% of all antibiotic use. Wide variability in antibiotic use occurred for 3 of these 4 conditions.
Antibiotic use in children's hospitals varied broadly across institutions when examining diagnoses individually and adjusting for severity of illness. Identifying conditions with both frequent and variable antimicrobial use informs the prioritization of high-impact targets for future antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
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