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Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
Taxonomic identification of archaeofauna relies on techniques and anatomical traits that should be valid, reliable, and usable, but which are rarely tested. Identification protocols (techniques and anatomical traits), particularly those used to distinguish taxa of similar size and morphology, should be rigorously tested to ensure a solid interpretive foundation. Blind testing of a protocol for identifying stylohyoid bones of North American artiodactyls was performed by three analysts who independently employed the protocol to identify 77 anatomically complete specimens of known taxonomic identity, representing 54 individuals and 11 species. Identifications were identical in 89% of cases and in conflict in 3% of cases. The remainder involved differences in resolution; two analysts identified specimens to species, whereas the third identified specimens to more general taxonomic groups. Inter-analyst variability in identification was a result of differences in protocol application. Identifications were consistent with known taxon in 92%–96% of cases. Results indicate that the protocol is valid, reliable, and usable, and it can be applied to archaeological specimens with confidence. Testing of other identification criteria employed by zooarchaeologists is encouraged.
Two environmental re-engineering projects clashed in south-eastern Puerto Rico in the early twentieth century. Between 1910 and 1914 the Puerto Rican Irrigation Service built three large dams to water canefields owned by US sugar companies. The new canals and holding ponds created ideal breeding grounds for malaria-carrying mosquitoes, and demand for fieldworkers encouraged greater numbers of Puerto Ricans to work and live near these mosquito swarms. Malaria rates soared as a result. Meanwhile, public health officials tried to control malaria, but their efforts faltered, especially when efficient irrigation was prioritised above all else. It was not until the 1940s and 1950s that health officials controlled and then eliminated malaria. In Puerto Rico, malaria rose with the commitment to irrigated canefields and remained tenacious until wartime exigencies inspired greater control efforts, DDT became available and, most importantly, manufacturing eclipsed sugar production as the island's dominant economic activity.
One interpretation of the conditional If P then Q is as saying that the probability of Q given P is high. This is an interpretation suggested by Adams (1966) and pursued more recently by Edgington (1995). Of course, this probabilistic conditional is nonmonotonic, that is, if the probability of Q given P is high, and R implies P, it need not follow that the probability of Q given R is high. If we were confident of concluding Q from the fact that we knew P, and we have stronger information R, we can no longer be confident of Q. We show nonetheless that usually we would still be justified in concluding Q from R. In other words, probabilistic conditionals are mostly monotonic.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The free volume changes associated with deformation of metallic glasses play an important role in strain localization in shear bands. However the details of these structural changes during inhomogeneous deformation are unclear. In this study, the free volume changes in Cu60Zr30Ti10 and Zr58.5Cu15.6Ni12.8Al10.3Nb2.8 bulk metallic glasses were examined and quantified using differential scanning calorimetry following rolling and low temperature annealing. It was found that the height of the endothermic peak associated with the glass transition decreased following deformation whereas annealing resulted in an increase in the peak height. Additionally, the exothermic event associated with structural relaxation prior to the glass transition occurred at a lower temperature after rolling in the Zr-based system. Surprisingly, a similar shift in the onset temperature was not observed in the Cu-based system, suggesting a different structural relaxation mechanism. The Zr-based system was successfully modeled and the results indicated that the free volume increased ∼4% with inhomogeneous deformation and decreased ∼14% with annealing, consistent with expectations. In an effort to further characterize strain localization in shear bands, the development of a crack tip damage zone in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite was studied using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The first shear band developed at an angle of ∼60° from the crack propagation direction. This is discussed in light of the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion for metallic glasses. The reinforcement phase arrested the growth of individual shear bands, while accumulated damage resulted in the shear bands cutting through the crystalline phase, ultimately resulting in crack branching and failure.
MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars / Microvariabilite et Oscillations STellaire) is a Canadian microsatellite mission intended to detect rapid photometric oscillations at the μmag level in stars brighter than V ∼ 6. This limit is set primarily by the 15-cm aperture of the MOST telescope. The small size and mass of the MOST bus (similar to a suitcase) sets a limit on the pointing accuracy of about ±10 arcsec. To achieve the required photometric precision under these conditions, the MOST focal plane features a set of Fabry microlenses which can spread the target starlight into a pupil image of the telescope onto a CCD. The large size (∼1600 pixels) and positional stability (±0.1 pixel) of these images makes MOST insensitive to CCD flat-fielding errors. MOST is currently on schedule to be launched in early 2002.
Thin films of In2O3 and Fe2O3 have been deposited on (001) MgO using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). These thin-film diffusion couples were then reacted in an applied electric field at elevated temperatures. In this type of solid-state reaction, both the reaction rate and the interfacial stability are affected by the transport properties of the reacting ions. The electric field provides a very large external driving force that influences the diffusion of the cations in the constitutive layers. This induced ionic current causes changes in the reaction rates, interfacial stability and distribution of the phases. Through the use of electron microscopy techniques the reaction kinetics and interface morphology have been investigated in these spinel-forming systems, to gain a better understanding of the influence of an electric field on solid-state reactions.
For fast-pulse laser-crystallized thin-film Si on non-crystalline
substrates, the average grain size exhibits a peak as a function excimer
laser energy density at a characteristic laserfluence FM. The
average grain size increases with increasing laser fluence and can reach a
maximum value on the order of 10 pm or about 100 times the film thickness.
The grain size then decreases with further increases in fluence. This peak
in grain size is accompanied by a similar peak in the Hall electron mobility
and x-ray scattering intensity. Our experiments have investigated
as-deposited and ion-implanted samples, using a double-scan laser
crystallization process. Devices have also been fabricated and studied. The
results are consistent with the increase in grain size occurring because of
the destruction of nucleation sites with increasing laser fluence (i.e.,
increased heating and complete Melting). But substrate damage occurs in the
vicinity of FM, creating nucleation sites which give rise to
small grain sizes in the solidified film. The disruption of the interface
causes substantial current leakage through the dielectric of bottom-gate
transistors, implying that devices should be laser fabricated below
A variety of ceramic materials have been heated in various microwave excited plasmas at reduced pressures. Temperatures were measured by optical fiber thermometry. Specimen heating was accomplished by direct contact with the plasma, as well as direct coupling withthe microwave energy, although the latter was screened heavily by the plasma. Higher specimen temperatures were achieved in polyatomic gases which have greater reactional enthalpy. In general, insulating materials achieved higher temperatures than semiconducting or covalently bonded materials.
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