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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the brain and spinal cord in humans with neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA) due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been well reported. Equivalent studies in animals are lacking. This case series describes clinical and MRI findings in 11 dogs with presumptively or definitively diagnosed NA. MRI of the brain and/or spinal cord was performed using high-field (1.5 T) or low-field (0.25 T) scanners using various combinations of transverse, sagittal, dorsal and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W), transverse, sagittal and dorsal T2-weighted (T2W), T2W fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2*-weighted (T2*W) gradient echo (GRE), dorsal T2W short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and post-gadolinium transverse, sagittal, dorsal and 3D T1W and transverse T2W FLAIR sequences. In 4/6 cases where the brain was imaged, changes consistent with diffuse meningoencephalitis were observed. Evidence of meningeal involvement was evident even when not clinically apparent. The spinal cord was imaged in 9 dogs, with evidence of meningitis and myelitis detected in regions consistent with the observed neuroanatomical localization. Pathognomonic changes of neural larva migrans, as described in some human patients with NA, were not detected. NA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with MRI evidence of focal or diffuse meningitis, myelitis and/or encephalitis, especially in areas where A. cantonensis is endemic. If not precluded by imaging findings suggestive of brain herniation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection for cytology, fluid analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing should be considered mandatory in such cases after the MRI studies.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
We distributed a 16-question survey concerning noxious weed abundance, impacts, and management to livestock producers grazing on privately owned or leased grazing lands in Montana. The noxious weeds most commonly reported as being present on respondents’ grazing units were Canada thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] (64% of grazing units) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) (45% of grazing units), and these species also reportedly caused the greatest reductions in livestock forage. Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) was more prevalent than either spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.) or diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) (39% vs. 32% and 10%, respectively, of grazing units), but collectively C. stoebe and C. diffusa were reported to cause greater forage reductions than C. officinale. The top three strategies used to manage noxious weeds were chemical control, grazing, and biological control. Combining survey responses with forage-loss models derived from field data for C. stoebe and E. esula, we estimated the combined cost of noxious weed management and forage losses on privately owned rangeland to be $3.54 ha−1 yr−1, or $7,243 annually for an average size grazing unit (i.e., 2,046 ha [5,055 ac]). Our estimates of economic losses are lower than many estimates from previous studies, possibly because we focused only on direct costs related to private grazing land, while other studies often consider indirect impacts. Nonetheless, our estimates are substantial; for example, our estimated loss equates to 24% of the average per-hectare lease rate for Montana grazing land.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Confronting national, linguistic and disciplinary boundaries, contributors to African Archaeology Without Frontiers argue against artificial limits and divisions created through the study of ‘ages’ that in reality overlap and cannot and should not be understood in isolation. Papers are drawn from the proceedings of the landmark 14th PanAfrican Archaeological Association Congress, held in Johannesburg in 2014, nearly seven decades after the conference planned for 1951 was re-located to Algiers for ideological reasons following the National Party’s rise to power in South Africa. Contributions by keynote speakers Chapurukha Kusimba and Akin Ogundiran encourage African archaeologists to practise an archaeology that collaborates across many related fields of study to enrich our understanding of the past. The nine papers cover a broad geographical sweep by incorporating material on ongoing projects throughout the continent including South Africa, Botswana, Cameroon, Togo, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria. Thematically, the papers included in the volume address issues of identity and interaction, and the need to balance cultural heritage management and sustainable development derived from a continent racked by social inequalities and crippling poverty. Edited by three leading archaeologists, the collection covers many aspects of African archaeology, and a range of periods from the earliest hominins to the historical period. It will appeal to specialists and interested amateurs.
This paper presents the first major data release and survey description for the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme. ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme is an ongoing supernova spectroscopy campaign utilising the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The first and primary data release of this programme (AWSNAP-DR1) releases 357 spectra of 175 unique objects collected over 82 equivalent full nights of observing from 2012 July to 2015 August. These spectra have been made publicly available via the WISEREP supernova spectroscopy repository.
We analyse the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme sample of Type Ia supernova spectra, including measurements of narrow sodium absorption features afforded by the high spectral resolution of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument. In some cases, we were able to use the integral-field nature of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument to measure the rotation velocity of the SN host galaxy near the SN location in order to obtain precision sodium absorption velocities. We also present an extensive time series of SN 2012dn, including a near-nebular spectrum which both confirms its ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ status and enables measurement of the sub-solar host metallicity at the SN site.
Fall-applied residual and spring preplant burn-down herbicide applications are typically used to control winter annual weeds and may also provide early-season residual control of summer annual weed species such as giant ragweed. Field experiments were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in southern Illinois to (1) assess the emergence pattern of giant ragweed, (2) evaluate the efficacy of several herbicides commonly used for soil-residual control of giant ragweed, and (3) investigate the optimal application timing of soil-residual herbicides for control of giant ragweed. Six herbicide treatments were applied at four application timings: early fall, late fall, early spring, and late spring. Giant ragweed first emerged in mid- and late-March in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The duration of emergence varied by year, with 95% of emergence complete in late May of 2008, but not until early July in 2007. Giant ragweed emergence occurred more quickly in plots that received a fall application of glyphosate + 2,4-D compared with the nontreated. Fall-applied residual herbicides did not reduce giant ragweed emergence in 2007 when compared with the nontreated, with the exception of chlorimuron + tribenuron applied in late fall. Giant ragweed control from early- and late-spring herbicide applications was variable by year. In 2007, saflufenacil (50 and 100 g ai ha−1) and simazine applied in early spring reduced giant ragweed densities by 95% or greater through mid-May; however, in 2008, early-spring applications failed to reduce giant ragweed emergence in mid-April. The only treatments that reduced giant ragweed densities by > 80% through early July were late-spring applications of chlorimuron + tribenuron or saflufenacil at 100 g ha−1. Thus, the emergence patterns of giant ragweed in southern Illinois dictates that best management with herbicides would include late-spring applications of soil-residual herbicides just before crop planting and most likely requires subsequent control with foliar or soil-residual herbicides after crop emergence.
We have obtained deep g, r, and i-band Subaru and ultra-deep 3.6 μm IRAC images of parts of the multiply-wrapped stellar stream around the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 5907. We have fitted the surface brightness measurements of the stream with FSPS stellar population synthesis models to derive the metallicity and age of the brightest parts of the stream. The resulting relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.3) is consistent with a major merger scenario but a satellite accretion event cannot be ruled out.