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Laser-plasma physics has developed rapidly over the past few decades as lasers have become both more powerful and more widely available. Early experimental and numerical research in this field was dominated by single-shot experiments with limited parameter exploration. However, recent technological improvements make it possible to gather data for hundreds or thousands of different settings in both experiments and simulations. This has sparked interest in using advanced techniques from mathematics, statistics and computer science to deal with, and benefit from, big data. At the same time, sophisticated modeling techniques also provide new ways for researchers to deal effectively with situation where still only sparse data are available. This paper aims to present an overview of relevant machine learning methods with focus on applicability to laser-plasma physics and its important sub-fields of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial confinement fusion.
Politics and science have become increasingly intertwined. Salient scientific issues, such as climate change, evolution, and stem-cell research, become politicized, pitting partisans against one another. This creates a challenge of how to effectively communicate on such issues. Recent work emphasizes the need for tailored messages to specific groups. Here, we focus on whether generalized messages also can matter. We do so in the context of a highly polarized issue: extreme COVID-19 vaccine resistance. The results show that science-based, moral frame, and social norm messages move behavioral intentions, and do so by the same amount across the population (that is, homogeneous effects). Counter to common portrayals, the politicization of science does not preclude using broad messages that resonate with the entire population.
Why did the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) pursue a nonviolent, collaborative, and parliamentary path to power? How did it secure major electoral successes? The answers to both queries have much to do with the PKI's adaptation of Maoism. Although scholars recognize that Maoism was influential on PKI theory and praxis, they have hitherto underevaluated the extent to which PKI leaders, notably Dipa Nusantara Aidit and Muhammad Hatta Lukman, engaged with Mao's ideas and how such ideas informed policy. Through textual exegesis of PKI leaders’ writings and speeches, our article argues that the PKI's “Indonesianization” of Marxism–Leninism drew from several Maoist texts, but differed in its composition in a number of important ways. “Indonesianization” entailed cross-class alliances, the political agency of the peasantry, willingness to cooperate with parties across the political spectrum, and, most innovatively, a nonviolent agenda. The PKI also demonstrated an adaptive willingness to learn from all, while remaining beholden to none. Our goal is to show how PKI leaders spoke back in their dialectical engagement with Maoism, as Maoism, for them, did not constitute a static, orthodox, or monolithic “thing.” Instead, Maoism was for Aidit and Lukman an ideological system within which lay an ideological discourse, critical interpretive paradigm, historical revolutionary experience, military strategy, and blueprint to socialist development against which to juxtapose their ideas and grand visions.
Background:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that is transmitted in healthcare facilities and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental contamination is suspected to play an important role in transmission but additional information is needed to inform environmental cleaning recommendations to prevent spread. Methods: We conducted a multiregional (Chicago, IL; Irvine, CA) prospective study of environmental contamination associated with C. auris colonization of patients and residents of 4 long-term care facilities and 1 acute-care hospital. Participants were identified by screening or clinical cultures. Samples were collected from participants’ body sites (eg, nares, axillae, inguinal creases, palms and fingertips, and perianal skin) and their environment before room cleaning. Daily room cleaning and disinfection by facility environmental service workers was followed by targeted cleaning of high-touch surfaces by research staff using hydrogen peroxide wipes (see EPA-approved product for C. auris, List P). Samples were collected immediately after cleaning from high-touch surfaces and repeated at 4-hour intervals up to 12 hours. A pilot phase (n = 12 patients) was conducted to identify the value of testing specific high-touch surfaces to assess environmental contamination. High-yield surfaces were included in the full evaluation phase (n = 20 patients) (Fig. 1). Samples were submitted for semiquantitative culture of C. auris and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacterales (ESBLs), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Times to room surface contamination with C. auris and other MDROs after effective cleaning were analyzed. Results:Candida auris colonization was most frequently detected in the nares (72%) and palms and fingertips (72%). Cocolonization of body sites with other MDROs was common (Fig. 2). Surfaces located close to the patient were commonly recontaminated with C. auris by 4 hours after cleaning, including the overbed table (24%), bed handrail (24%), and TV remote or call button (19%). Environmental cocontamination was more common with resistant gram-positive organisms (MRSA and, VRE) than resistant gram-negative organisms (Fig. 3). C. auris was rarely detected on surfaces located outside a patient’s room (1 of 120 swabs; <1%). Conclusions: Environmental surfaces near C. auris–colonized patients were rapidly recontaminated after cleaning and disinfection. Cocolonization of skin and environment with other MDROs was common, with resistant gram-positive organisms predominating over gram-negative organisms on environmental surfaces. Limitations include lack of organism sequencing or typing to confirm environmental contamination was from the room resident. Rapid recontamination of environmental surfaces after manual cleaning and disinfection suggests that alternate mitigation strategies should be evaluated.
This study documents the COVID-19 disease-control measures enacted in rural China and examines the economic and social impacts of these measures. We conducted two rounds of surveys with 726 randomly selected village informants across seven provinces. Strict disease-control measures have been universally enforced and appear to have been successful in limiting disease transmission in rural communities. The infection rate in our sample was 0.001 per cent, a rate that is near the national average outside of Hubei province. None of the villages reported any COVID-19-related deaths. For a full month during the quarantine, the rate of employment of rural workers was essentially zero. Even after the quarantine measures were lifted, nearly 70 per cent of the villagers still were unable to work owing to workplace closures. Although action has been taken to mitigate the potential negative effects, these disease-control measures might have accelerated the inequality between rural and urban households in China.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study assesses patient and volumetric risk factors for distant recurrence within 6 months of completion of curative chemoradiation with brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Initial tumor volume and tumor shrinkage velocity are prognostic of cure and survival after curative chemoradiation (CRT) for cervical cancer. We explored whether local tumor volumetric changes influence time to distant recurrences outside the radiation field. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with FIGO Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with curative CRT and brachytherapy at a tertiary academic center with minimum 3 months follow up and standard post-treatment FDG-PET. Patients received 6 weekly fractions of brachytherapy interdigitated with external beam radiation and cisplatin. Tumor volumes were assessed by MRI at brachytherapy planning. Patients who developed distant metastasis were classified as earliest (3-6 months), early (6-24 months) or late (>24 months) following completion of CRT. Absolute and percent decrease in tumor volume for each fraction were calculated with respect to first brachytherapy volume. Fisher’s exact and Mann Whitney-U tests were used for comparison of categorical and continuous variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 143 of 574 (25%) patients developed distant metastasis. Distribution of age, histology, FIGO 2018 stage, primary tumor SUVmax, treatment length, and pre/post treatment squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were not associated in each group. Para-aortic lymph metastases were more common in patients with earliest distant recurrence (33% earliest, 26% early, 12% late, p=0.03). Median initial tumor volume in the earliest (n=24), early (n =29) and late (n=9) groups was 57, 28 and 40 mL, respectively (p=0.08); 57 (earliest) vs 30mL (early+late groups), p=0.04. Average mid treatment (fraction 4) and end of treatment (fraction 6) percent shrinkage was 80 (earliest) vs 73 (early+late), p=0.84 and 94 vs 92, p=0.95, respectively. Neither absolute nor percent tumor shrinkage differed between early vs. late groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Tumor volumetric changes during definitive chemoradiation were not associated with the timing of developing distant metastasis, which is linked to presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor volume at diagnosis.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Little is known about the effect of hemodilution with crystalloid on blood coagulation in obstetric patients. The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of hemodilution on components of blood coagulation using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) in term parturients METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a prospective, observational pilot study including 35 healthy, pregnant patients at term (≥37 weeks) without history of bleeding or clotting disorder or on medication affecting coagulation. Venous blood samples were collected from all patients and divided into specimen tubes to generate varying degrees of hemodilution with Plasma-Lyte (0%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%). Rotational thromboelastometry was then performed on samples to assess for coagulation changes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: EXTEM (extrinsically activated assay) clotting time (CT) became prolonged at 65% hemodilution and above, and the median CT was in the coagulopathic range (>80 seconds) at a dilution of 80%. FIBTEM (extrinsically activated assay with platelet inhibitor, primarily measuring contribution of fibrinogen to coagulation) amplitude at 5 minutes (A5) began to diminish at 35% hemodilution, with the median A5 in the coagulopathic range (<12 mm) at 55% hemodilution. The area under the curve (AUC), a marker of clot strength, for EXTEM and FIBTEM consistently declined as hemodilution increased. Greater decreases in FIBTEM AUC were seen compared to EXTEM AUC, with the ratio of FIBTEM:EXTEM AUC at each dilution demonstrating a statistically significant difference from baseline. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: All thromboelastometry values demonstrated a hypocoagulable trend as hemodilution increased. However, the samples analyzed by the FIBTEM assay trended toward a coagulopathy at a lower degree of hemodilution compared to the EXTEM assay. As FIBTEM tests analyze the role of fibrinogen in hemostasis and EXTEM tests analyze the role of platelets, our findings suggest that platelets may be able to withstand higher degrees of hemodilution before impairing hemostasis compared to fibrinogen. These findings support the growing body of literature that in early stages of severe obstetric hemorrhage, the prioritization of fibrinogen replacement may be critical in preventing further coagulopathy. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: All authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Distinguished by a marked combination of high strength and high fracture toughness, 18Ni-300 maraging steel (MS) is widely used for intricate tool and die applications. MS is also amenable to the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, providing unique opportunities to make small features and incorporate cooling channels in molds. In this study, tensile test samples were fabricated using selective laser melting to investigate the effects of built height and orientations on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples. The microstructure of the as-fabricated samples consists of the primary α-martensite phase and fine cellular microstructure (~0.66–0.83 μm) with the retained austenite γ-phase aggregated at the boundaries of the cells, resulting in an enhanced mechanical performance compared with traditional counterparts under the same condition (without post-heat treatments). Random grain orientations with weak textures are revealed in all samples. The XY-built samples display better tensile performance when compared to the Z-built samples due to the fine grain sizes and the retained γ phase. The bottom of the Z-built sample exhibits a higher hardness than other parts of the sample, which could be attributed to its finer cellular structure.
Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio has been associated with clinical outcomes in several groups of cardiac patients, including patients with coronary artery disease, cardiac failure, and cardiac transplant recipients. We hypothesised that pre- and/or post-operative haematological cell counts are associated with clinical outcomes in children undergoing cardiac surgery for CHD. We performed a post hoc analysis of data collected as part of a prospective observational cohort study (n = 83, data available n = 47) of children evaluated for glucocorticoid receptor levels after cardiac surgery (July 2015–January 2016). The association of neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio with low cardiac output syndrome, time to inotrope free, and vasoactive-inotropic score was examined using proportional odds analysis, cox regression, and linear regression models, respectively. A majority (80%) of patients were infants (median/interquartile range 4.1/0.2–7.6 months) with conotruncal (36%) and left-sided obstructed lesions (28%). Two patients required mechanical circulatory support and three died. Higher pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was associated with higher cumulative odds of severe/moderate versus mild low cardiac output on post-operative day 1 (odds ratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.18–6.93; p = 0.02). Pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was not significantly associated with time to inotrope free or vasoactive-inotrope score. Post-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was also not associated with outcomes. In children after congenital heart surgery, higher pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was associated with a higher chance of low cardiac output in the early post-operative period. Pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio maybe a useful prognostic marker in children undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) that, when severe, requires corrective surgery or other catheter-based intervention in the first year of life. Due to its rarity, risk factors for Ebstein anomaly remain largely unknown. Using national data, we examined 18 potential risk factors for Ebstein anomaly.
Using 1997–2011 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, we calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for paternal age, maternal socio-demographics, reproductive history, and modifiable risk factors, and infant characteristics reported by mothers of 135 Ebstein anomaly cases and 11,829 controls.
Mothers of Ebstein anomaly cases had 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 9.5) times the odds of reporting a family history of CHD compared with mothers of controls. Ebstein anomaly was associated with maternal second-hand cigarette smoke exposure at home (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.1, 4.4]), but not maternal cigarette smoking (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.1]). Odds were elevated, but the 95% confidence interval included 1.0, for maternal marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.8]) and paternal age ≥40 years at delivery (odds ratio = 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.5]).
Maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke at home and a family history of CHD were associated with elevated odds of Ebstein anomaly. Genetic analyses could clarify the potential heritability of Ebstein anomaly.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.