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Adolescent e-cigarette use has been labeled an epidemic and alcohol use during this developmental period is associated with deleterious outcomes. Though specific temperamental dimensions have been shown to predict substance use, profiles of temperament have rarely been examined as predictors. This study examines dimensions and profiles of adolescent temperament as predictors of early use of e-cigarettes and alcohol. The sample was comprised of adolescent (62.07% female, 87.59% White, 82.76% Hispanic/Latinx)/caregiver dyads (N = 146) who completed the first two timepoints (M age at second timepoint = 16.16, SD = 0.68) of a longitudinal adolescent substance use study. Models showed parent-reported effortful control predicted protection against adolescent use of e-cigarettes, whereas adolescent report of effortful control predicted protection against alcohol use. Though dissimilar in temperamental pattern, three profiles emerged from both parent- and adolescent-report-based latent profile analysis models. Adolescents characterized by parents as displaying a Resilient profile had greater odds of e-cigarette use than those characterized by a Reserved profile, whereas adolescents who self-characterized as Mixed-type had markedly greater odds of alcohol use than those who self-characterized as Resilient. Utilization of temperamental profiles may aid in identification of particularly vulnerable subgroups of adolescents who may benefit from relevant preventative programing.
Although mania is the hallmark symptom of bipolar I disorder (BD-I), most patients initially present for treatment with depressive symptoms. Misdiagnosis of BD-I as major depressive disorder (MDD) is common, potentially resulting in poor outcomes and inappropriate antidepressant monotherapy treatment. Screening patients with depressive symptoms is a practical strategy to help healthcare providers (HCPs) identify when additional assessment for BD-I is warranted. The new 6-item Rapid Mood Screener (RMS) is a pragmatic patient-reported BD-I screening tool that relies on easily understood terminology to screen for manic symptoms and other BD-I features in <2 minutes. The RMS was validated in an observational study in patients with clinically confirmed BD-I (n=67) or MDD (n=72). When 4 or more items were endorsed (“yes”), the sensitivity of the RMS for identifying patients with BP-I was 0.88 and specificity was 0.80; positive and negative predictive values were 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. To more thoroughly understand screening tool use among HCPs, a 10-minute survey was conducted.
A nationwide sample of HCPs (N=200) was selected using multiple HCP panels; HCPs were asked to describe their opinions/current use of screening tools, assess the RMS, and evaluate the RMS versus the widely recognized Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). Results were reported by grouped specialties (primary care physicians, general nurse practitioners [NPs]/physician assistants [PAs], psychiatrists, and psychiatric NPs/PAs). Included HCPs were in practice <30 years, spent at least 75% of their time in clinical practice, saw at least 10 patients with depression per month, and diagnosed MDD or BD in at least 1 patient per month. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics; statistical significance was reported at the 95% confidence interval.
Among HCPs, 82% used a tool to screen for MDD, while 32% used a tool for BD. Screening tool attributes considered to be of the greatest value included sensitivity (68%), easy to answer questions (66%), specificity (65%), confidence in results (64%), and practicality (62%). Of HCPs familiar with screening tools, 70% thought the RMS was at least somewhat better than other screening tools. Most HCPs were aware of the MDQ (85%), but only 29% reported current use. Most HCPs (81%) preferred the RMS to the MDQ, and the RMS significantly outperformed the MDQ across valued attributes; 76% reported that they were likely to use the RMS to screen new patients with depressive symptoms. A total of 84% said the RMS would have a positive impact on their practice, with 46% saying they would screen more patients for bipolar disorder.
The RMS was viewed positively by HCPs who participated in a brief survey. A large percentage of respondents preferred the RMS over the MDQ and indicated that they would use it in their practice. Collectively, responses indicated that the RMS is likely to have a positive impact on screening behavior.
We argue that Americans’ policy attitudes on firearm availability are influenced by the identity of the prospective owner. We use an experiment to demonstrate that attitudes towards gun control/availability are influenced by both race and gender; whether subjects are primed to think of African-Americans versus whites or men versus women has a substantial impact on the degree to which they support firearm access. We find that for many white Americans, Black men and white women stand on opposite poles – priming white Americans with the thought of a Black man decreases support for gun availability, whereas priming the thought of a white woman increases support for gun availability. Further, the magnitude of this effect is quite large – comparable to the difference between Democrats and Republicans. These findings underscore the importance of thinking about the complicated role identity groups play in understanding Americans’ preferences for government (in)action, even in policy areas with explicit Constitutional mandates.
The article extends notions of ‘active’ and ‘successful’ ageing by exploring the narratives of ageing in the retirement migration of Canadian and American older adults in Cuenca, Ecuador. The article is based on 83 semi-structured qualitative interviews (11 of which are follow-up interviews), most conducted in the first half of the 2010s. I explore how notions of finite time and imaginaries of a fourth age of decline and death inform the migration decisions and imaginaries of Canadian and American retirement migrants. I argue that their desire to seek self-expansive, new experiences through migration and contact with cultural difference dialogues with an increasingly competitive neoliberal culture of ageing, that emphasises success through activity, youthfulness and consumption. While there are certainly other ideals that help inform North American migration to Ecuador, I argue that these particular ideals illustrate how discourses of ‘active ageing’ have been taken up ‘from below’, by ageing North American adults, many of whom identify with the aspirations of policy and corporate discourses of activity and success, but who find themselves ageing into material conditions that preclude them. Migration to a lower-cost country, like Ecuador, helps them to experience these aspirations more positively, but may have uneven effects on lower-income workers and their ability to remain in place in the communities marketed for this type of migration.
Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007–2008 and 2016–2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an increase in the number of active patients; the proportion of active patients detained per year remained relatively stable. Findings suggest that the rise in the number of detentions reflects the rise of the number of people receiving secondary mental healthcare.
Although audio archives are available for a number of political institutions, the data they provide receive scant attention from researchers. Yet, audio data offer important insights, including information about speakers’ emotional states. Using one of the largest collections of natural audio ever compiled—74,158 Congressional floor speeches—we introduce a novel measure of legislators’ emotional intensity: small changes in vocal pitch that are difficult for speakers to control. Applying our measure to MCs’ floor speeches about women, we show that female MCs speak with greater emotional intensity when talking about women as compared with both their male colleagues and their speech on other topics. Our two supplementary analyses suggest that increased vocal pitch is consistent with legislators’ broader issue commitments, and that emotionally intense speech may affect other lawmakers’ behavior. More generally, by demonstrating the utility of audio-as-data approaches, our work highlights a new way of studying political speech.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a universal intervention, given schools’ important influence on child mental health.
A two-arm, pragmatic, parallel group, superiority, cluster randomised controlled trial recruited three cohorts of schools (clusters) between 2012 and 2014, randomising them to TCM (intervention) or Teaching As Usual (TAU-control). TCM was delivered to teachers in six whole-day sessions, spread over 6 months. Schools and teachers were not masked to allocation. The primary outcome was teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Total Difficulties score. Random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models using Generalised Estimating Equations were used to analyse the outcomes. Trial registration: ISRCTN84130388.
Eighty schools (2075 children) were enrolled; 40 (1037 children) to TCM and 40 (1038 children) to TAU. Outcome data were collected at 9, 18, and 30-months for 96, 89, and 85% of children, respectively. The intervention reduced the SDQ-Total Difficulties score at 9 months (mean (s.d.):5.5 (5.4) in TCM v. 6.2 (6.2) in TAU; adjusted mean difference = −1.0; 95% CI−1.9 to −0.1; p = 0.03) but this did not persist at 18 or 30 months. Cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that TCM may be cost-effective compared with TAU at 30-months, but this result was associated with uncertainty so no firm conclusions can be drawn. A priori subgroup analyses suggested TCM is more effective for children with poor mental health.
TCM provided a small, short-term improvement to children's mental health particularly for children who are already struggling.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the integration of cover crops and POST herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. The winter-annual grasses accumulated the greatest amount of biomass and provided the most Palmer amaranth control. The estimates for the logistic regression would indicate that 1540 kg ha−1 would delay Palmer amaranth emerging and growing to 10 cm by an estimated 16.5 days. The Palmer amaranth that emerged in the cereal rye and wheat cover crop treatments took a longer time to reach 10 cm compared to the hairy vetch and crimson clover treatments. POST herbicides were needed for adequate control of Palmer amaranth. The glufosinate-based weed control system provided greater control (75% vs 31%) of Palmer amaranth than did the glyphosate system. These results indicate that a POST only herbicide weed management system did not provide sufficient control of Palmer amaranth, even when used in conjunction with cover crops that produced a moderate level of biomass. Therefore, future recommendations for GR Palmer amaranth control will include integrating cover crops with PRE herbicides, overlaying residual herbicides in-season, timely POST herbicide applications, and hand weeding in order to achieve season-long control of this pest.
A field experiment was established to test the impact on crop yield, total productivity and biological di-nitrogen (N2) fixation of a self-regenerating annual legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), grown in mixtures with experimental perennial wheat lines. Legume content was altered in one intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dewey) and two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) × wheatgrass (Th. spp.) hybrid-based stands by sowing the legume in the same drill row as the perennial crop, or in every second or third row, spatially separated from the perennial crop. The hybrid perennial crops were more vigorous than intermediate wheatgrass in year 1, competing strongly and reducing legume biomass over the 2 yr period leading to reduced inputs of fixed nitrogen (N). However, both hybrid crops declined to negligible levels following the first summer with only the intermediate wheatgrass persisting in adequate densities in year 2. Spatially separating the perennial crop from the legume in alternate drill rows increased legume biomass by 32–128% and clover regeneration by 31–195%, and reduced weed incursion by up to 47% compared with where it was sown in mixed rows. However, spatial separation more than halved grain yields in year 2 compared with where the perennial crop was grown in every drill row. This likely reflected changed competition dynamics where the modified spatial configurations at sowing limited the perennial crops’ access to resources. When estimates of the total inputs of fixed N from the clover (5–165 kg N ha−1 in year 2) were compared with the amounts of N removed in grain by the different perennial wheat treatments (10–55 kg N ha−1 in year 1), it appears feasible that a companion legume could fix sufficient N to maintain the N balance of a cropping system producing 1.5–2.0 t grain ha−1 each year. The inclusion of a legume increased total above-ground biomass by up to 142%, particularly in year 2, but this did not translate into increased grain yields. It seems unlikely that a self-regenerating annual legume will be able to effectively coexist among a dense perennial wheat canopy where both species are sown in the same drill row. Further research is required to develop strategies to channel more of the additional resources apparently accessed by the companion legume into grain production.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds, especially GR Palmer amaranth, are very problematic in cotton-producing areas of the midsouthern region of the United States. Growers rely heavily on PRE residual herbicides to control Palmer amaranth since few effective POST options exist. Interest in integrating high-residue cover crops with existing herbicide programs to combat GR weeds has increased. Research was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Tennessee to evaluate GR Palmer amaranth control when integrating cover crops and PRE residual herbicides. Cereal rye, crimson clover, hairy vetch, winter wheat, and combinations of one grass plus one legume were compared with winter weeds without a cover crop followed by fluometuron or acetochlor applied PRE. Biomass of cover crops was determined prior to termination 3 wk before planting. Combinations of grass and legume cover crops accumulated the most biomass (> 3,500 kg ha−1) but by 28 d after application (DAA) the cereal rye and wheat provided the best Palmer amaranth control. Crimson clover and hairy vetch treatments had the greatest number of Palmer amaranth. These cereal and legume blends reduced Palmer amaranth emergence by half compared to non–cover-treated areas. Fluometuron and acetochlor controlled Palmer amaranth 95 and 89%, respectively, at 14 DAA and 54 and 62%, respectively, at 28 DAA. Cover crops in combination with a PRE herbicide did not adequately control Palmer amaranth.
Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Jackson, TN, to evaluate the efficacy of integrating cover crops and POST herbicides in corn to control glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Crimson clover and hairy vetch were planted in the fall and accumulated greater than 1,600 kg ha−1 aboveground biomass by time of termination. Crimson clover and hairy vetch provided 62% and 58% Palmer amaranth control 14 d before application, respectively. POST herbicide treatments of glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, and glyphosate + atrazine were applied when Palmer amaranth reached 15 cm tall. The herbicide treatments provided greater than 95% control of Palmer amaranth 28 d after application. In addition to Palmer amaranth suppression, corn was taller at V5 and V7 following a hairy vetch cover crop. Hairy vetch and crimson clover residues provided early season weed suppression because of biomass accumulation. Palmer amaranth in the nontreated control plots reached 15 cm 4 and 3 d ahead of the cover-treated plots in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This could potentially increase POST herbicide-application flexibility for producers. Results of this trial also suggest that cover crops alone are not a means of season-long control of GR Palmer amaranth. From a herbicide resistance-management perspective, the integration of cover crops with herbicide mixtures that incorporate multiple sites of action should aid in mitigating the further selection of herbicide resistance in Palmer amaranth.
The Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα) of neutral hydrogen (Hi) is intrinsically the brightest emission feature in the spectrum of astrophysical nebulae, making it a very attractive observational feature with which to survey galaxies. Moreover as an ultraviolet resonance line, Lyα possesses several unique characteristics that make it useful to study the properties of the interstellar medium and ionising stellar population at all cosmic epochs. In this review, I present a summary of Lyα observations of galaxies in the nearby universe. By ultraviolet continuum selection, at the magnitudes reachable with current facilities, only ≈ 5% of the local galaxy population shows a Lyα equivalent width (WLyα) that exceeds 20 Å. This fraction increases dramatically at higher redshifts, but only in the local universe can we study galaxies in detail and assemble unprecedented multi-wavelength datasets. I discuss many local Lyα observations, showing that when galaxies show net Lyα emission, they ubiquitously also produce large-scale halos of scattered Lyα, that dominate the integrated luminosity. Concerning global measurements, we discuss how WLyα and the Lyα escape fraction (fLyαesc) are higher (WLyα ≳ 20 Å and fLyαesc ≳ 10%) in galaxies that represent the less massive and younger end of the distribution for local objects. This is connected with various properties, such that Lyα-emitting galaxies have lower metal abundances (median value of 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.1) and dust reddening. However, the presence of galactic outflows/winds is also vital to Doppler shift the Lyα line out of resonance with the atomic gas, and high WLyα is found only among galaxies with winds faster than ~ 50 km s−1. The empirical evidence is then assembled into a coherent picture, and the requirement for star-formation-driven feedback is discussed in the context of an evolutionary sequence where the interstellar medium is accelerated and/or subject to hydrodynamical instabilities, which reduce the scattering of Lyα. Concluding remarks take the form of perspectives upon future developments, and the most pressing questions that can be answered by observation.
We report on first molecular gas observations in the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS; Hayes et al.2013, 2014, Östlin et al.2014), which were performed using the 45m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). The beamsize at the observed 12CO (1–0) emission is ≈ 15” corresponding to ≈ 12kpc at the given redshift of z ≈ 0.04. We detected strong 12CO emission in LARS 3 (Arp 238), marginally detected LARS 8 (SDSS 1250+0734) and derived an upper limit for LARS 9 (IRAS 08208+2816).
Discrimination on the basis of skin color persists as a serious social and political problem in many of the world’s nations. Although numerous consequences of such discrimination have been enumerated, considerably less is known regarding the bases of perceived discrimination. In this study, individuals’ perceptions that they have been the targets of skin-color discrimination are examined. Using 2010 AmericasBarometer data from six nations, a multifaceted account of the possible bases of perceived discrimination is devised and tested. Three classes of predictors are considered: (1) variables related to a person’s skin color, race, and ethnicity; (2) extraneous demographic and psychological factors; and (3) aspects of the individual’s regional social and political context. Results reveal that both skin color and racial and ethnic self-categorization strongly correspond with perceived discrimination, with additional, more modest, effects identified for socioeconomic status (wealth), personality (agreeableness), and the composition of a person’s regional context.