To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The occurrence of early childhood adversity is strongly linked to later self-harm, but there is poor understanding of how this distal risk factor might influence later behaviours. One possible mechanism is through an earlier onset of puberty in children exposed to adversity, since early puberty is associated with an increased risk of adolescent self-harm. We investigated whether early pubertal timing mediates the association between childhood adversity and later self-harm.
Participants were 6698 young people from a UK population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC). We measured exposure to nine types of adversity from 0 to 9 years old, and self-harm when participants were aged 16 and 21 years. Pubertal timing measures were age at peak height velocity (aPHV – males and females) and age at menarche (AAM). We used generalised structural equation modelling for analyses.
For every additional type of adversity; participants had an average 12–14% increased risk of self-harm by 16. Relative risk (RR) estimates were stronger for direct effects when outcomes were self-harm with suicidal intent. There was no evidence that earlier pubertal timing mediated the association between adversity and self-harm [indirect effect RR 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.00 for aPHV and RR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00–1.01 for AAM].
A cumulative measure of exposure to multiple types of adversity does not confer an increased risk of self-harm via early pubertal timing, however both childhood adversity and early puberty are risk factors for later self-harm. Research identifying mechanisms underlying the link between childhood adversity and later self-harm is needed to inform interventions.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work examines the association between diabetes mellitus and latent tuberculosis infection among a cohort of household contacts exposed to active tuberculosis in Ethiopia, focusing attention on the need for further translational research to determine the mechanisms of susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established risk factor for active TB disease, but there is limited understanding of the relationship of DM and latent tuberculosis (LTBI). We sought to determine the relationship between DM or pre-DM with LTBI among household or close contacts (HHCs) of active TB cases in Ethiopia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the HHCs of index active TB cases enrolled in an ongoing TB Research Unit (TBRU) study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. HHCs of individuals with laboratory-confirmed TB had QuantiFERON ®-TB Gold Plus (QFT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) tests performed. LTBI was defined as a positive QFT and lack of symptoms. HbA1C results were used to define no DM (HbA1c <5.7), pre-DM (HbA1c 5.7-6.5%), and DM (HbA1c >6.5% or prior history of diabetes). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjustment for age, sex and HIV status as potential confounders. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 466 HHCs, the median age was 29 years (IQR 23-38), 58.8% were female, 3.4% were HIV-positive, and median BMI was 20.9 kg/m^2 (IQR 18.9-23.8). Overall, 329 HHCs (70.6%) had LTBI, 26 (5.6%) had DM and 73 (15.7%) had pre-DM. Compared to HHC without DM, the prevalence of LTBI was higher in those with pre-DM (68.9% vs. 72.6%; OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.69-2.13) and those with DM (88.5%; OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.17-14.77). In multivariable analysis, there was a trend towards increased LTBI risk among HHCs with DM vs. without DM (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.67-9.70) but the difference was not statistically significant. Among HHCs with LTBI, the median IFN-? response to TB1 antigen was modestly greater in those with DM (5.3 IU/mL; IQR 3.0-7.8) and pre-DM (5.4 IU/mL; IQR 2.0-8.4) compared to HHCs without DM (4.3 IU/mL; IQR 1.4-7.7). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our results suggest that DM may increase the risk of LTBI among HHCs recently exposed to active TB. Among those with LTBI, increased IFN-? antigen response in the presence of DM and pre-DM may indicate an exaggerated but ineffectual response to TB. Further investigation is needed to assess how dysglycemia impacts susceptibility to M. tuberculosis.
Gambling is considered a public health issue by many researchers, similarly to alcohol or obesity. Statistical risk warnings on gambling products can be considered a public health intervention that encourages safer gambling while preserving freedom of consumer choice. Statistical risk warnings may be useful to gamblers, given that net gambling losses are the primary driver of harm and that gambling products vary greatly in the degree to which they facilitate losses. However, there is some doubt as to whether statistical risk warnings are, in their current form, effective at reducing gambling harm. Here, we consider current applications and evidence, discuss product-specific issues around a range of gambling products and suggest future directions. Our primary recommendation is that current statistical risk warnings can be improved and also applied to a wider range of gambling products. Such an approach should help consumers to make more informed judgements and potentially encourage gambling operators to compete more directly on the relative ‘price’ of gambling products.
Mimbres painted pottery from the U.S. Southwest is renowned for its spectacular designs. Literature on style and identity suggests three concepts helpful for understanding its social significance: boundaries, multiple dimensions of variation, and historical context. This article investigates these concepts by synthesizing past studies with new analyses. The distribution of Mimbres pottery is strongly bounded, demonstrated with data from the cyberSW project. Variation in designs is multidimensional: (1) individual artists created distinctive styles; (2) specific designs are distributed homogeneously across the region, a conclusion demonstrated in part with new analyses of the geometric designs; and (3) pan-regionally, the designs’ content, regular structure, and appearance on multiple media suggest they were meaning-charged. Considering these findings in their historical context provides insights into the pottery's social significance and elaboration: population growth in the resource-rich Mimbres region engendered land tenure systems, marked in part by burials that included pottery. The pottery came to convey the message “I belong here” from two perspectives. By adopting the pottery, people, including migrants, signaled their acceptance of established ways of life in the region, and their access to the pottery indicated their acceptance in the social milieu.
This agenda-setting volume brings together leading scholars of media and public life to grapple with how media research can make sense of the massive changes rocking politics and the media world. Each author identifies a 'most pressing' question for scholars working at the intersection of journalism, politics, advocacy, and technology. The authors then suggest different research approaches designed to highlight real-world stakes and offer a path toward responsive, productive action. Chapters explore our 'datafied' lives, journalism's deep responsibilities and daunting challenges, media's inclusions (and non-inclusions), the riddle of digital engagement, and the obligations scholars must attempt to meet in an era of networked information. The result is a rich forum that addresses how media transformations carry serious implications for public life. Original, provocative, and generative, this book is international in its orientation and makes a compelling case for public scholarship.
This chapter summarizes the book’s aim, which is to explore how scholars working at the intersections of journalism, politics, and activism make sense of and relate to some of the most pressing issues concerning contemporary developments in media and public life. Matthew Powers and Adrienne Russell describe recurrent questions that confront scholars of media and public life, and then summarize the core themes explored in the volume, which are living in a datafied world, journalism in times of change, media and problems of inclusion, engagement with and through media, and the role of scholars.