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The purpose of this study was to identify 1) the proportion of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of concussion and return within 14 days, and 2) the characteristics that prompt a return.
A health records review was conducted on adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of a concussion who accessed care through Hamilton Health Sciences EDs and Urgent Care Centre in 2016. Subsequent data were collected from those who returned to the ED within 14 days. Clinical characteristics of returners were compared to those of non-returners.
Of the 389 patients included in the study, 38 (10%) returned within 14 days. Patients who sustained a concussion in a sport-related context or were referred to a specialized clinic were less likely to return (p = 0.03). Those who suffered an assault-related concussion were more likely to return (p = 0.01). Of those who did return, 42% received a CT scan with normal results, and 42% were given new discharge instructions.
Approximately 10% of patients diagnosed with a concussion in a Canadian hospital setting returned to the ED within 14 days of their index visit. Our study suggests the opportunity to reduce this burden to both the healthcare system and the patient through careful discharge instructions outlining anticipated symptoms following a concussion (specifically, headache) or referral to a concussion clinic.
Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural–urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland.
Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban–rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban–rural classification.
Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items.
The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.
The growth of of metallic copper by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using copper(I) di-sec-butylacetamidinate ([Cu(sBu-amd)]2) and molecular hydrogen (H2) on SiO2/Si surfaces has been studied. The mechanisms for the initial surface reaction and chemical bonding evolutions with each ALD cycle are inferred from in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data. Spectroscopic evidence for Cu agglomeration on SiO2 is presented involving the intensity variations of the SiO2 LO/TO phonon modes after chemical reaction with the Cu precursor and after the H2 precursor cycle. These intensity variations are observed over the first 20 ALD cycles at 185°C.
We investigated attentional outcome after childhood stroke and
orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with
focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or
scoliosis were studied with standardized attention and neuroimaging
assessments. Stroke lesions were quite varied in location and commonly
involved regions implicated in Posner's model of attention
networks. Children with stroke lesions performed significantly more
poorly regarding attention function compared with controls. Performance
on the Starry Night, a test demanding alerting and sensory-orienting
but not executive attention function, was significantly associated with
lesion size in the alerting and sensory-orienting networks but not the
executive attention network. Furthermore, earlier age at lesion
acquisition was significantly associated with poorer attention function
even when lesion size was controlled. These findings support the theory
of dissociable networks of attention and add to evidence from studies
of children with diffuse and focal brain damage that early insults are
associated with worse long-term outcomes in many domains of
neuropsychological function. In addition, these results may provide
clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying attention in
children. (JINS, 2004, 10, 976–986.)
This paper reports a study on the assembly of gold nanoparticles via a tetradentate organosulfur ligand, tetra[(methylthio)methyl] silane. We have characterized the evolution of the assembly from individual nanoparticles to spheres (30 ∼ 160 nm) of linked nanoparticles using UV-Visible, TEM, and AFM techniques. We have also demonstrated that the assemblies could be effectively disassembled via manipulating the ligand chemistry. Intriguing assembly-substrate interactions were observed, which could be related to interfacial hydrophobicity. Implications of these findings to the development of abilities in interfacial manipulation of the nanostructures are also discussed.
Among 29 multiply affected pedigrees, age of onset among parents and offspring was examined for evidence of both anticipation and genomic imprinting. The results do not suggest that either mechanism is operating in schizophrenia, but only very large effects can be confidently excluded.
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