To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Quantitative information on epidemiological quantities such as the incubation period and generation time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants is scarce. We analysed a dataset collected during contact tracing activities in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy, throughout 2021. We determined the distributions of the incubation period for the Alpha and Delta variants using information on negative polymerase chain reaction tests and the date of last exposure from 282 symptomatic cases. We estimated the distributions of the intrinsic generation time using a Bayesian inference approach applied to 9724 SARS-CoV-2 cases clustered in 3545 households where at least one secondary case was recorded. We estimated a mean incubation period of 4.9 days (95% credible intervals, CrI, 4.4–5.4) for Alpha and 4.5 days (95% CrI 4.0–5.0) for Delta. The intrinsic generation time was estimated to have a mean of 7.12 days (95% CrI 6.27–8.44) for Alpha and of 6.52 days (95% CrI 5.54–8.43) for Delta. The household serial interval was 2.43 days (95% CrI 2.29–2.58) for Alpha and 2.74 days (95% CrI 2.62–2.88) for Delta, and the estimated proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission was 48–51% for both variants. These results indicate limited differences in the incubation period and intrinsic generation time of SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha and Delta compared to ancestral lineages.
Symptoms of depression are transdiagnostic heterogenous features frequently assessed in psychiatric disorders, that impact the response to first-line treatment and are associated with higher suicide risk. This study assessed whether severe mental pain could characterize a specific phenotype of severely depressed high-risk psychiatric patients. We also aimed to analyze differences in treatments administered.
2,297 adult patients (1,404 females and 893 males; mean age = 43.25 years, SD = 15.15) treated in several Italian psychiatric departments. Patients were assessed for psychiatric diagnoses, mental pain, symptoms of depression, hopelessness, and suicide risk.
More than 23% of the patients reported high depression symptomatology and high mental pain (HI DEP/HI PAIN). Compared to patients with lower symptoms of depression, HI DEP/HI PAIN is more frequent among females admitted to an inpatient department and is associated with higher hopelessness and suicide risk. In addition, HI DEP/HI PAIN (compared to both patients with lower symptoms of depression and patients with higher symptoms of depression but lower mental pain) were more frequently diagnosed in patients with personality disorders and had different treatments.
Patients reporting severe symptoms of depression and high mental pain presented a mixture of particular dangerousness (high trait hopelessness and the presence of suicide ideation with more frequency and less controllability and previous suicide behaviors). The presence of severe mental pain may act synergically in expressing a clinical phenotype that is likewise treated with a more complex therapeutic regime than that administered to those experiencing symptoms of depression without mental pain.
Knowledge of the precipitation contribution to the Antarctic surface mass balance is essential for defining the ice-sheet contribution to sea-level rise. Observations of precipitation are sparse over Antarctica, due to harsh environmental conditions. Precipitation during the summer months (November–December–January) on four expeditions, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18 and 2018–19, in the Terra Nova Bay area, were monitored using a vertically pointing radar, disdrometer, snow gauge, radiosounding and an automatic weather station installed at the Italian Mario Zucchelli Station. The relationship between radar reflectivity and precipitation rate at the site can be estimated using these instruments jointly. The error in calculated precipitation is up to 40%, mostly dependent on reflectivity variability and disdrometer inability to define the real particle fall velocity. Mean derived summer precipitation is ~55 mm water equivalent but with a large variability. During collocated measurements in 2018–19, corrected snow gauge amounts agree with those derived from the relationship, within the estimated errors. European Centre for the Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) analysis and operational outputs are able to forecast the precipitation timing but do not adequately reproduce quantities during the most intense events, with overestimation for ECMWF and underestimation for AMPS.
A 70-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department reporting the acute onset of non-fluent aphasia, hyposthenia, and hemi-anesthesia of the right body. Brain computerized tomography revealed a subcortical hypodense lesion in the middle cerebral artery territory. Neck ultrasounds of internal and external carotid arteries and of the vertebral arteries showed a focal moderate stenosis of the left internal carotid artery due to a soft atheromasic plaque. These findings that were initially consistent with a diagnosis of an ischemic stroke were not confirmed by magnetic resonance (MR). The latter showed an hyperintense lesion on FLAIR and T2-weighted sequences located in the left centrum semiovale, corona radiata, and thalamus, with a well-defined regular rim and a mild compressive effect on the lateral ventricle, with diffusivity restriction but without ADC reduction and with a punctate and serpiginous gadolinium enhancement on T1 sequences (Figure 1). Within the first day of observation, the patient started complaining progressive mental deterioration, in absence of any other possible causes, and a total body CT scan excluded any other organ involvement. Patient was then referred to the neurosurgeon in order to perform a brain biopsy. The neuropathology was compatible with the diagnosis of cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) (Figure 1).
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.
Sunlight is the most environmental friendly energy source available on Earth; many efforts devoted to design artificial photoconversion systems are ongoing, nevertheless they are still expensive and poorly efficient. Photoconversion devices made with organic-biological hybrids, or biohybrids, based on the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) have been introduced. In these systems, the photoenzyme is garnished with artificial antennas to enhance the photoactivity of the RC. Here we present a newly synthesized heptamethine cyanine dye that fulfills requisites to act as efficient RC light harvesting antenna.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
In this work, we analyze the pressure sensing of a thin film molybdenum/aluminumnitride/molybdenum (Mo/AlN/Mo) microwave/RF MEMS filter fabricated by a simple technology. After an experimental characterization in a frequency range between 1 and 36 GHz, we focused on the piezoelectric effect due to the stress properties of the piezoelectric AlN layer by applying forces by means of weights. Variations in the bandpass region of the microwave/RF filter are observed by proving high sensitivity also for low applied weights. We check by a properly designed three-dimensional (3D) finite-element method (FEM) tool the pressure-sensing property of the proposed device. Finally, we analyze the bad gap property of a chip with central defect around 40 GHz.
Aims – To obtain a new, well-balanced mental health funding system, through the creation of i) a list of psychiatric interventions provided by Italian Community-based Psychiatric Services (CPS), and associated costs; ii) a new prospective funding system for patients with a high use of resources, based on packages of care. Methods – Five Italian Community-based Psychiatric Services collected data from 1250 patients during October 2002. Socio-demographical and clinical characteristics and GAF scores were collected at baseline. All psychiatric contacts during the following six months were registered and categorised into 24 service contact types. Using elasticity equation and contact characteristics, we estimate the costs of care. Cluster analysis techniques identified packages of care. Logistic regression defined predictive variables of high use patients. Multinomial Logistic Model assigned each patient to a package of care. Results – The sample's socio-demographic characteristics are similar, but variations exist between the different CPS. Patients were then divided into two groups, and the group with the highest use of resources was divided into three smaller groups, based on number and type of services provided. Conclusions – Our findings show how is possible to develop a cost predictive model to assign patients with a high use of resources to a group that can provide the right level of care. For these patients it might be possible to apply a prospective per-capita funding system based on packages of care.
Aim – To develop predictive models to allocate patients into frequent and low service users groups within the Italian Community-based Mental Health Services (CMHSs). To allocate frequent users to different packages of care, identifing the costs of these packages. Methods – Socio-demographic and clinical data and GAF scores at baseline were collected for 1250 users attending five CMHSs. All psychiatric contacts made by these patients during six months were recorded. A logistic regression identified frequent service users predictive variables. Multinomial logistic regression identified variables able to predict the most appropriate package of care. A cost function was utilised to estimate costs. Results – Frequent service users were 49%, using nearly 90% of all contacts. The model classified correctly 80% of users in the frequent and low users groups. Three packages of care were identified: Basic Community Treatment (4,133 Euro per six months); Intensive Community Treatment (6,180 Euro) and Rehabilitative Community Treatment (11,984 Euro) for 83%, 6% and 11% of frequent service users respectively. The model was found to be accurate for 85% of users. Conclusion – It is possible to develop predictive models to identify frequent service users and to assign them to pre-defined packages of care, and to use these models to inform the funding of psychiatric care.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.