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To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations.
We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants. Finally, we calculated the correlations between the six symptom dimensions and multiple DTI measures [FA, axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD)] in a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and explored the differences between OCD patients and HC.
There were no between-group differences in FA or brain region correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions and FA in any of the participants. ROI analysis revealed negative correlations between checking severity and left inferior frontal gyrus white matter and left middle temporal gyrus white matter and a positive correlation between ordering severity and right precuneus in FA in OCD compared with HC. We also found negative correlations between ordering severity and right precuneus in RD, between obsessing severities and right supramarginal gyrus in AD and MD, and between hoarding severity and right insular gyrus in AD.
Our study supported the hypothesis that the severities of respective symptom dimensions are associated with different patterns of white matter alterations.
Glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is integral to the pathophysiology of depression. This study was performed to examine whether amino acids related to NMDA receptor neurotransmission are altered in the serum of patients with depression.
We measured the serum levels of d-serine, l-serine, glycine, glutamate and glutamine in patients with depression (n=70), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=78).
Serum levels of d-serine and l-serine in patients with depression were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). In contrast, serum levels of glycine, glutamate and glutamine did not differ between the two groups. Interestingly, the ratio of l-serine to glycine in patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (p<0.001).
This study suggests that serine enantiomers may be peripheral biomarkers for depression, and that abnormality in the d-serine-l-serine-glycine cycle plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression.
A recent clinical study demonstrated that sodium benzoate (SB), a prototype competitive d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, was effective in the treatment of several symptoms, such as positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment in medicated patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of SB on behavioural abnormalities such as pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits and hyperlocomotion in mice after a single administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP).
The effects of SB on behavioural abnormalities (PPI deficits and hyperlocomotion) in mice after PCP administration were examined. Furthermore, effects of SB on tissue levels of amino acids were also examined.
A single oral dose of SB (100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg) attenuated PPI deficits in mice after administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, L-701,324 (10 mg/kg), an antagonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, did not affect the effect of SB (1000 mg/kg) on PCP-induced PPI deficits. Furthermore, a single oral dose of SB (1000 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the hyperlocomotion in mice after administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.). However, a single oral dose of SB (1000 mg/kg) caused no changes to d-serine levels in plasma or in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of these animals.
This study suggests that SB induced antipsychotic effects in the PCP model of schizophrenia, although it did not increase d-serine levels in the brain.
Background: One of the most common interpersonal reactions to threat and anxiety is to seek reassurance from a trusted person. The Reassurance Seeking Questionnaire (ReSQ) measures several key aspects of reassurance seeking behaviour, including frequency, trust of sources, intensity, carefulness, and the emotional consequences of reassurance seeking. Aims: The current study compares patterns and consequences of reassurance seeking in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression. Method: ReSQ scores were compared for three groups: 32 individuals with OCD, 17 individuals with depression, and 24 healthy comparison participants. Results: We found that individuals with OCD tended to seek reassurance more intensely and employ self-reassurance more frequently than individuals with depression or healthy participants, and that if reassurance was not provided, they tended to feel a greater urge to seek additional reassurance. Conclusions: This study is the first to quantitatively elucidate differences in reassurance seeking between OCD and depression.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is widely regarded as an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Europe and North America. The theoretical orientations underlying CBT models and treatment interventions developed in Western cultures were typically constrained by Western conceptualizations of SAD. This case study reports on the use of CBT for Japanese SAD, demonstrating the successful implementation of cognitive techniques grounded in the Clark & Wells model. The patient was a Japanese female with excessively high standards for workplace social performance. Therapy mainly comprised case formulation, behavioural experiments, and opinion surveying based on the Clark & Wells model. These techniques allowed the patient to reduce the strength of maladaptive cognitions and lower her excessively high standards for social performance. CBT treatment using the Clark & Wells model was effective and suitable for Japanese SAD, at least in the present case. We also discuss the cross-cultural differences of SAD and adaptation of CBT.
Background: Inflated responsibility is the main feature of cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined the effect of cognitive-behavioural group therapy (CBGT) on inflated responsibility. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CBGT on OCD symptoms and responsibility beliefs. Methods: Thirty-six subjects meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for OCD were recruited to CBGT, and 28 of them completed 12 sessions. Subjects were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS), and the Responsibility Interpretations Questionnaire (RIQ) at pre- and post-treatment. Results: Y-BOCS, RAS and RIQ (belief) scores were significantly improved at the end of the treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates that CBGT improves not only obsessive-compulsive symptoms but also inflated responsibility beliefs in patients with OCD.
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