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In Japan, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) occurs only in Hokkaido. With recent increase and range expansion of the bear population, conflicts among people and bears, as well as the number of control bear kills, have also increased. Recently, bear intrusions into urban areas, such as Sapporo City, as well as agricultural damage to corn and fruits, have increased in various parts of Hokkaido, although there has been little livestock damage. The number of bear kills has increased from 200 to 300 per year in the 1990s to over 850 by 2010. The purpose of >90% of recent kills was damage control. The average cost of annual agricultural damage and number of bear kills between 2010 and 2017 were 13.7 and 679 million yen, respectively. In this chapter, the current situation of bear management issues in Hokkaido is presented, including the paradigm of Brown Bear Management Plan of Hokkaido, urban bear management in Sapporo, and the human resource development and management system to develop proper brown bear management
We identified a waterborne pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera in our stem cell transplantation center, which likely resulted from biofilm on the aerators of the handwashing machines in each patient’s room. Regular replacement of faucet parts can prevent biofilm formation and pseudo-outbreaks of M. chimaera through aerators.
Studies of human behavioural responses to climate change have begun to address traditional archaeological questions in new ways. Hitherto, most of these studies have focused on western Eurasia, but the question of human response to rapid climatic changes in northern Japan during the Upper Palaeolithic period opens up new perspectives. Combining artefact studies and palaeoenvironmental evidence, Japan provides a case study for how quickly modern humans adapted to new environmental challenges, and how that adaptation can be charted through the lithic technologies employed in different geoclimatic circumstances.
An electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) study using a monochromator transmission electron microscope was conducted for investigating the dielectric response of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) owing to interband transitions characteristic to chiral structures. Individual chiral structures of the SWCNTs were determined by electron diffraction patterns. EELS spectra obtained from isolated SWCNTs showed sharp peaks below π plasmon energy of 5 eV, which were attributed to the characteristic interband transitions of SWCNTs. In addition, unexpected shoulder structures were observed at the higher energy side of each sharp peak. Simulations of EELS spectra by using the continuum dielectric theory showed that an origin of the shoulder structures was because of the surface dipole mode along the circumference direction of the SWCNT. It was noticed that the electron excitation energies obtained by EELS were slightly higher than those of optical studies, which might be because of the inelastic scattering process with the momentum transfers. To interpret the discrepancy between the EELS and optical experiments, it is necessary to conduct more accurate simulation including the first principle calculation for the band structure of SWCNTs.
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