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Animals, including arthropods, are one health threat that can be affected by disasters. This institution-based study aimed to assess trends in Hymenoptera stings following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.
We reviewed the medical records of patients with hymenopteran stings who visited Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, located 23 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, from March 2005 to March 2016. Patient and sting characteristics of post-disaster patients were examined, and the annual incidence of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings was compared with the pre-disaster baseline, calculating an incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each year.
We identified 152 pre-disaster patients (2005-2011) and 222 post-disaster patients (2011-2016). In the post-disaster period, 160 males (72.1%) were identified, with a median age of 59 years (range: 2-89 years). A total of 45 patients (20.3%) were decontamination workers. Post-disaster increases were found in the IRR for hymenopteran stings, peaking first in 2011 (IRR: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-4.2) and later in 2014 (IRR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.4-4.3) and 2015 (IRR 3.3; 95% CI: 2.5-4.4).
Long-term increases were found in the IRR of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings in an institution affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Decontamination workers appear to have been particularly affected by this phenomenon. Better disaster field worker monitoring and education about potential environmental health hazards may help to identify and prevent worker exposure to insect stings and other vectors in these settings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:545–551)
We experimentally examine a laser-induced underwater shock wave paying special attention to the pressure impulse, the time integral of the pressure evolution. Plasma formation, shock-wave expansion and the pressure in water are observed simultaneously using a combined measurement system that obtains high-resolution nanosecond-order image sequences. These detailed measurements reveal a distribution of the pressure peak which is not spherically symmetric. In contrast, remarkably, the pressure impulse is found to be symmetrically distributed for a wide range of experimental parameters, even when the shock waves are emitted from an elongated region. The structure is determined to be a collection of multiple spherical shock waves originating from point-like plasmas in the elongated region.
Low Ca intake is common among Japanese women, but its effect on bone metabolism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between Ca intake and serum markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal Japanese women.
A cross-sectional study.
A community setting.
Subjects were 595 home-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women. Ca intake was assessed by a validated FFQ. Serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTX) and osteocalcin were measured as markers of bone turnover. The relationships between demographic characteristics, lifestyles, serum Ca, vitamin D and intact serum parathyroid hormone and bone turnover were also assessed.
The average age of the subjects was 64·5 (sd 5·8) years and the mean Ca intake was 527 (sd 160) mg/d. Ca intake was significantly associated with serum NTX (P = 0·0104), but not with serum osteocalcin. Mean serum NTX concentration in the lowest quartile of Ca intake (<417 mg/d) was significantly higher than in the fourth, referent quartile. Among these Japanese postmenopausal women, very low Ca intake (less than ∼400 mg/d) was associated with increased bone resorption but not bone formation.
Increased bone resorption may be one mechanism by which this Ca-depleted population normalizes bone metabolism and prevents osteoporosis.
The relationship between microstructures and hydrogen absorption-desorption properties described in terms of pressure-composition (P-C) isotherms has been investigated for binary and Co- and Al-added LaNi5-based alloys as a function of the number of hydrogen sorption cycles. From microstructure observations, factors determining absorption pressures are deduced and variations of P-C isotherms with cycle number for these three LaNi5-based alloys are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to validate the self-reported body height and weight of adult Japanese women. The subjects were women, aged 20–42 years, who participated in a survey on eating disorders in women in 1995. Physically measured height and weight data were obtained for 368 (89·8%) of the 469 women who self-reported their height and weight. The report-based heights and weights were compared with the measured values. The correlation coefficients for height and weight were 0·990 and 0·963 (p<0·0001), respectively. Mean reported height was 0·1 cm shorter and mean reported weight 0·2 kg lighter than the measured values. Shorter women tended to report a taller height than their actual height, and heavier women to report a lower weight than their actual weight. Despite these limitations, the self-reported heights and weights of adult Japanese women were precise and accurate, and their use in epidemiological surveys is considered acceptable.
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