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Although chronic pain (CP) is classified as inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the involvement of fatty acid intake in this process has not yet been examined in detail. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the relationship between CP and fatty acid intake differs between high and low C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals in the Shika study. One-thousand and seven males and 1216 females with mean ages of 68⋅78 and 69⋅65 years, respectively, participated in the present study. CRP was quantified by blood sampling from participants who responded to a CP questionnaire. The brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) was used to assess fatty acid intake. Interactions were observed between CP and CRP on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eicosadienoic acid in a two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex, age, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, current smoking and drinking status, and BMI. MUFA (OR 1⋅359) and eicosadienoic acid (OR 1⋅072) were identified as significant independent variables for CP in a multiple logistic regression analysis, but only in the low CRP group. Only a high intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid was associated with chronic neck/shoulder/upper limb pain without elevated CRP. In psychogenic and neuropathic pain without elevated CRP, an increased intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid, a family member of n-6 fatty acids, appears to affect CP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.
Low Ca intake is common among Japanese women, but its effect on bone metabolism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between Ca intake and serum markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal Japanese women.
A cross-sectional study.
A community setting.
Subjects were 595 home-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women. Ca intake was assessed by a validated FFQ. Serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTX) and osteocalcin were measured as markers of bone turnover. The relationships between demographic characteristics, lifestyles, serum Ca, vitamin D and intact serum parathyroid hormone and bone turnover were also assessed.
The average age of the subjects was 64·5 (sd 5·8) years and the mean Ca intake was 527 (sd 160) mg/d. Ca intake was significantly associated with serum NTX (P = 0·0104), but not with serum osteocalcin. Mean serum NTX concentration in the lowest quartile of Ca intake (<417 mg/d) was significantly higher than in the fourth, referent quartile. Among these Japanese postmenopausal women, very low Ca intake (less than ∼400 mg/d) was associated with increased bone resorption but not bone formation.
Increased bone resorption may be one mechanism by which this Ca-depleted population normalizes bone metabolism and prevents osteoporosis.
We have examined effects of gas velocity and gas pressure on a deposition rate of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and on a volume fraction of clusters in the films using a multi-hollow discharge plasma CVD method. The maximum deposition rate realized for each pressure exponentially increases with decreasing the pressure from 1.0 Torr to 0.1 Torr, whereas the volume fraction of clusters very slightly increases with increasing the deposition rate. Based on the results, we have succeeded in depositing highly stable a-Si:H films of 4.9×1015cm-3 in a stabilized defect density at a rate of 3.0nm/s using the method.
The dependence of phosphorus doping on crystal face and C/Si ratio in the epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC using phosphine were investigated. Phosphorus incorporation was highest on off-axis (000-1) and lowest on off-axis (0001). Phosphorus incorporation on (11-20) came between that on off-axis (0001) and (000-1). With increasing C/Si ratio from 0.5 to 2.5, phosphorus incorporation increased on (11-20) and off-axis (000-1). Phosphorus incorporation on off-axis (0001) showed unclear C/Si ratio dependence. On (000-1), the highest phosphorus concentration of 2 × 1018cm-3 was obtained by an increasing PH3 flow rate. The roughness, growth rate, and surface morphology of the high phosphorus doped epilayer were investigated.
In this study, we investigated surface features formed by molten KOH etching of (000-1) substrates and epilayers, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found the surface features formed on (000-1) are protrusions, in contrast to well-known dimples on (0001).
The purpose of this study was to validate the self-reported body height and weight of adult Japanese women. The subjects were women, aged 20–42 years, who participated in a survey on eating disorders in women in 1995. Physically measured height and weight data were obtained for 368 (89·8%) of the 469 women who self-reported their height and weight. The report-based heights and weights were compared with the measured values. The correlation coefficients for height and weight were 0·990 and 0·963 (p<0·0001), respectively. Mean reported height was 0·1 cm shorter and mean reported weight 0·2 kg lighter than the measured values. Shorter women tended to report a taller height than their actual height, and heavier women to report a lower weight than their actual weight. Despite these limitations, the self-reported heights and weights of adult Japanese women were precise and accurate, and their use in epidemiological surveys is considered acceptable.
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