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During the preclinical development of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in the human, oocytes were frequently obtained at laparotomies for various indications and the time for the operative procedure was generally not scheduled close to ovulation. The ovaries could now easily be scanned without using the full-bladder technique, and transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval (TVOR) could generally be performed with only use of some sedative in combination with local anesthesia. In order to increase the oocyte recovery rate it was found that Teflon tubing between needle and sampling tube was optimal. Today there are various sampling sets commercially available, including needle, tubing, and sampling tubes. The different complications of TVOR are bleeding and infection. In conclusion, available data regarding possible adverse effects of ultrasonography on oocytes have been interpreted to indicate that the technique, in this respect, is as safe as laparoscopy.