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In the absence of evidence of acute cerebral herniation, normal ventilation is recommended for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite this recommendation, ventilation strategies vary during the initial management of patients with TBI and may impact outcome. The goal of this systematic review was to define the best evidence-based practice of ventilation management during the initial resuscitation period.
A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and SCOPUS identified studies from 2009 through 2019 addressing the effects of ventilation during the initial post-trauma resuscitation on patient outcomes.
The initial search yielded 899 articles, from which 13 were relevant and selected for full-text review. Six of the 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, all of which reported on patients with TBI. Either end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) or partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2) were the independent variables associated with mortality. Decreased rates of mortality were reported in patients with normal PCO2 or ETCO2.
Normoventilation, as measured by ETCO2 or PCO2, is associated with decreased mortality in patients with TBI. Preventing hyperventilation or hypoventilation in patients with TBI during the early resuscitation phase could improve outcome after TBI.
Of the publishers with whom Byron had a significant association, James Cawthorn was the first, John Hunt the last, and John Murray the one with whom he had the longest involvement. Their status reflected the trajectory of Byron’s career: he began with a small publisher in Cawthorn, was with the influential Murray for the years of his most intense celebrity and allowed the radical Hunt to take over publishing Don Juan when his relationship with Murray broke down. His relationships with these men demonstrate his ambivalence about writing, publishing and commercial success.
Mary Ellen O'Connell explores how America’s identify has been linked to its respect for the rule of law and how that relationship has been challenged, particulary since the end of the Cold War. She argues that law is considered sovereign in the United States. The American identity is based on a view of America where DNA is law–national and international. Accordingly, the definition of American security rests upon securing the rule of law. This fundamental principle has been challenged at various points in US history but perhaps never as much as in recent times, beginning with the end of the Cold War. Without an opponent embracing authoritarian rule to reflect against, the post–Cold War confidence in military power overwhelmed the commitment to law. Weakened for a decade, the high commitment to law essentially collapsed on 9/11. It has yet to be regained. With the presidency of Donald Trump, the rise of China, the existential threat of climate change, and other factors, now is the moment to reestablish the place of law as the purpose of US national security.
On 21 August 2015, British Prime Minister David Cameron authorised the killing with military force of a British national, twenty-one-year-old Reyaad Khan. Khan and two other men riding in a vehicle with him were blown to shreds by Hellfire missiles launched from a remotely piloted drone. The attack occurred in Syria, despite the fact that the United Kingdom Parliament had voted to restrict UK involvement in the Syrian Civil War. The Prime Minister declared the killings a lawful exercise of Britain’s ‘inherent right to self-defence’1 against a ‘very real threat’.2 The British suspected Khan of recruiting individuals to ISIS3 and of plotting terrorist attacks to be carried out in the UK.4 A few days later, the United States also conducted a drone attack in Syria and announced with a ‘high level of confidence’ that it had succeeded in killing another twenty-one-year-old British national, Junaid Hussain.5
In this book, self-defence against non-state actors is examined by three scholars whose geographical, professional, theoretical, and methodological backgrounds and outlooks differ greatly. Their trialogue is framed by an introduction and a conclusion by the series editors. The novel scholarly format accommodates the pluralism and value changes of the current era, a shifting world order and the rise in nationalism and populism. It brings to light the cultural, professional and political pluralism which characterises international legal scholarship and exploits this pluralism as a heuristic device. This multiperspectivism exposes how political factors and intellectual styles influence the scholarly approaches and legal answers and the trialogical structure encourages its participants to decentre their perspectives. By explicitly focussing on the authors' divergence and disagreement, a richer understanding of self-defence against non-state actors is achieved, and the legal challenges and possible ways ahead identified.
International law evolved to end and prevent armed conflict as much as for any other reason. Yet, the law against war appears weaker today than ever in its long history, evidenced by raging armed conflicts in which people are killed, injured, and forcibly displaced. The environment is devastated, and the planet impoverished. These consequences can be traced to the dominant ideology of realism. In 1946, Hersch Lauterpacht challenged that ideology by contrasting it with the idea of international law, composed of natural law, positive law, and process theory. The Art of Law in the International Community revives his vision, rebuilding the understanding of why international law binds, what its norms require, and how courts are the ideal substitutes for war. The secret to the renewal of international law lies in revitalizing the moral foundation of natural law through drawing on aesthetic philosophy and the arts.