To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Surrogacy is specifically regulated in Australia. Australia is a federation in which most matters of family law are regulated nationally, but some issues including surrogacy and assisted reproductive technology are principally regulated by the states and territories. All six states and the Australian Capital Territory (‘ACT’) have legislation dealing with surrogacy. The laws in these seven jurisdictions are broadly similar in three respects. First, commissioning parents in altruistic arrangements can apply, post-birth, for a ‘parentage order’, transferring parental status from the surrogate parents to the commissioning parents. Second, the surrogate mother can enforce the commissioning parents ‘promise to reimburse her reasonable expenses associated with the arrangement. Third, commercial surrogacy is prohibited.
Federal family law does not specifically regulate surrogacy, but is relevant because commissioning parents sometimes apply under federal family legislation for orders that they have parental responsibility for children born in surrogacy arrangements, declarations of parental status, or leave to adopt. Federal immigration and citizenship law is also relevant to international surrogacy arrangements.
There is currently no legislation in the Northern Territory regulating surrogacy. Australian medical practitioners, including those in the Northern Territory, must adhere to the National Health and Medical Research Council's Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research.
There is no specialised authority which oversees surrogacy nationally. Statutory authorities in Victoria and Western Australia have a role in regulating some surrogacy arrangements. In Victoria, registered assisted reproductive treatment providers can only carry out surrogacy arrangements that were approved before conception by the Patient Review Panel of the Victorian Assisted Reproductive Treatment Authority (‘VARTA’). This is only permitted in altruistic surrogacy cases. If the arrangement was commissioned with the assistance of a registered assisted reproductive treatment provider, a Victorian court can only make a parentage order if the Patient Review Panel approved the arrangement.
The availability of folate is implicated as a determinant of DNA methylation, a functionally important feature of DNA. Nevertheless, when this phenomenon has been examined in the rodent model, the effect has not always been observed. Several reasons have been postulated for the inconsistency between studies: the rodent is less dependent on folate as a methyl source than man; juvenile animals, which most studies use, are more resistant to folate depletion than old animals; methods to measure genomic DNA methylation might not be sensitive enough to detect differences. We therefore examined the relationship between folate and genomic DNA methylation in an elder rat model with a newly developed method that can measure genomic DNA methylation sensitively and precisely. Thirty-nine 1-year-old rats were divided into three groups and fed a diet containing 0, 4·5 or 18 μmol folate/kg (folate-deplete, -replete and -supplemented groups, respectively). Rats were killed at 8 and 20 weeks. At both time points, mean liver folate concentrations increased incrementally between the folate-deplete, -replete and -supplemented rats (P for trend <0·001) and by 20 weeks hepatic DNA methylation also increased incrementally between the folate-deplete, -replete and -supplemented rats (P for trend=0·025). At both time points folate-supplemented rats had significantly increased levels of DNA methylation compared with folate-deplete\ rats (P<0·05). There was a strong correlation between hepatic folate concentration and genomic DNA methylation in the liver (r 0·48, P=0·004). In the liver of this animal model, dietary folate over a wide range of intakes modulates genomic DNA methylation.
In the United States alone, more than one million women of childbearing age suffer from epilepsy. New cases are diagnosed at a rate of 20–30 per 100,000 young women per year. Therefore, it is not surprising that epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder among pregnant women, complicating between 3 and 6 of every 1000 pregnancies.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.