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The Caribbean has seen a dramatic shift in the obesity and chronic disease prevalence over the past decades, suggesting a nutrition transition. Simultaneously, Martinique has faced a demographic transition marked by significant population ageing. We aimed to differentiate the contribution of changes in health status and dietary intakes due to shifts in demographic and socio-economic characteristics (DSEC) from that due to unobserved factors.
Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 (n 743) and 2013 (n 573) on representative samples were used. Dietary intakes were estimated by 24-h recalls. The contribution of changes in health status and dietary intakes due to shifts in observed DSEC was differentiated from that due to unobserved factors over a 10-year interval, using Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition models.
Martinique, French region in the Caribbean.
Martinican adults (≥16 years).
Over the study period, health status deteriorated, partly owing to shifts in DSEC, explaining 62 % of the change in the prevalence of hypertension (+13 percentage points (pp)) and 48 % of waist circumference change (+3 cm). Diet quality decreased (mean adequacy ratio –2pp and mean excess ratio + 2 pp) and energy supplied by ultra-processed food increased (+4 pp). Shifts in DSEC marginally explained some changes in dietary intakes (e.g. increased diet quality), while the changes that remained unexplained were of opposite sign, with decreased diet quality, lower fruits, tubers and fish intakes and higher energy provided by ultra-processed foods.
Explained dietary changes were of opposite sign to nutrition transition conceptual framework, probably because unobserved drivers are in play, such as food price trends or supermarkets spread.
The Southern dietary pattern, derived within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, is characterised by high consumption of added fats, fried food, organ meats, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages and is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics of individuals with high adherence to this dietary pattern. We analysed data from REGARDS, a national cohort of 30 239 black and white adults ≥45 years of age living in the USA. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 FFQ. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate standardised beta coefficients across all covariates for the entire sample and stratified by race and region. We included 16 781 participants with complete dietary data. Among these, 34·6 % were black, 45·6 % male, 55·2 % resided in stroke belt region and the average age was 65 years. Black race was the factor with the largest magnitude of association with the Southern dietary pattern (Δ = 0·76 sd, P < 0·0001). Large differences in Southern dietary pattern adherence were observed between black participants and white participants in the stroke belt and non-belt (stroke belt Δ = 0·75 sd, non-belt Δ = 0·77 sd). There was a high consumption of the Southern dietary pattern in the US black population, regardless of other factors, underlying our previous findings showing the substantial contribution of this dietary pattern to racial disparities in incident hypertension and stroke.
Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) have traditionally been limited to urban academic clinical centers. Implementation of CCTs in rural setting is challenged by lack of resources, the inexperience of patient care team members in CCT conductance and workflow interruption, and global inexperience with remote data monitoring.
We report our experience during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in activating through remote monitoring a multicenter clinical trial (the Study of Efficacy and Safety of Canakinumab Treatment for cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in Participants with COVID-19-induced Pneumonia [CAN-COVID] trial, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04362813) at a rural satellite hospital, the VCU Health Community Memorial Hospital (VCU-CMH) in South Hill, VA, that is part of the larger VCU Health network, with the lead institution being VCU Health Medical College of Virginia Hospital (VCU-MCV), Richmond, VA. We used the local resources at the facility and remote guidance and oversight from the VCU-MCV resources using a closed-loop communication network. Investigational pharmacy, pathology, and nursing were essential to operate the work in coordination with the lead institution.
Fifty-one patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from May to August 2020, 35 (69%) at VCU-MCV, and 16 (31%) at VCU-CMH. Among the patients enrolled at VCU-CMH, 37.5% were female, 62.5% Black, and had a median age of 60 (interquartile range 56–68) years.
Local decentralization of this trial in our experience gave rural patients access to a novel treatment and also accelerated enrollment and more diverse participants’ representative of the target population.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
Little is known about how best to implement infection prevention and control programs in low-resource settings. The quality improvement approach using plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles provides a framework for data-driven infection prevention and control implementation. We used quality improvement techniques and training to improve infection prevention and control practices in 2 model hospitals in Kenya. Methods: The 2 hospitals were chosen by the Kenya Ministry of Health for capacity building on infection prevention and control. At each site, the project team (the University of Washington International Training for Education and Training in Health, Ministry of Health, and Centers for Disease Control) conducted infection prevention and control training to infection prevention and control committee members. Infection prevention and control quality improvement activities were introduced in a staggered manner, focusing on hand hygiene and waste management practices. For hand hygiene, the project team’s technical assistance focused on facility hand hygiene infrastructure, hand hygiene practice adherence, hand hygiene supply quantification, and monitoring and evaluation using WHO hand hygiene audit tools. Waste management technical assistance focused on availability of policy, guidelines, equipment and supplies, waste segregation, waste quantification, and monitoring and evaluation using a data collection tool customized based on previously published tools. Regular interactive video conference sessions between the project team and the sites that included didactic sessions and sharing of data provided ongoing mentorship and feedback on quality improvement implementation, data interpretation, and data use. Results: Hand hygiene data collection began in April 2018. In hospital A, hand hygiene compliance increased from a baseline of 3% to 51% over 9 months. In Hospital B, hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 23% at baseline to 44% after 9 months. Waste management data collection began in November 2018. At hospital A, waste segregation compliance scores increased from 73% at baseline to 80% over 6 months, whereas hospital B, waste segregation compliance went from 44% to 80% over 6 months. Conclusions: A quality improvement approach appears to be a feasible means of infection prevention and control program strengthening in low resource settings.
Infectious diseases professional societies, public health agencies, and healthcare regulatory agencies call for antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) in many healthcare settings. However, medical legal implications of these programs remain largely uncharted territory. Although there is no legal precedent addressing issues of liability and standards of care on this subject, anticipating how the courts may assess questions of medical liability with respect to the various components of ASPs is important to define best practices in ASP operations, not only to manage the potential risk but also to improve patient care. This article seeks to address some of the common processes and interventions involved in antibiotic stewardship and the potential professional liability implications of these activities.
High-quality data are critical to the entire scientific enterprise, yet the complexity and effort involved in data curation are vastly under-appreciated. This is especially true for large observational, clinical studies because of the amount of multimodal data that is captured and the opportunity for addressing numerous research questions through analysis, either alone or in combination with other data sets. However, a lack of details concerning data curation methods can result in unresolved questions about the robustness of the data, its utility for addressing specific research questions or hypotheses and how to interpret the results. We aimed to develop a framework for the design, documentation and reporting of data curation methods in order to advance the scientific rigour, reproducibility and analysis of the data.
Forty-six experts participated in a modified Delphi process to reach consensus on indicators of data curation that could be used in the design and reporting of studies.
We identified 46 indicators that are applicable to the design, training/testing, run time and post-collection phases of studies.
The Data Acquisition, Quality and Curation for Observational Research Designs (DAQCORD) Guidelines are the first comprehensive set of data quality indicators for large observational studies. They were developed around the needs of neuroscience projects, but we believe they are relevant and generalisable, in whole or in part, to other fields of health research, and also to smaller observational studies and preclinical research. The DAQCORD Guidelines provide a framework for achieving high-quality data; a cornerstone of health research.
β-Glucans comprise a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides exhibiting a wide range of biological properties. They are categorized as dietary fibers due to their ability to reach the large intestine undigested and undergo fermentation by gut microbiota, with potential beneficial effects for the host. Aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of consumption of β-(1→3,1→6)-D-glucans, naturally found in the cell walls of fungi, on health outcomes.
A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science in order to retrieve studies that investigated the impact of exclusively oral administration of β-(1→3,1→6)-D-glucans to healthy individuals and/or patients in any form, at any dosage. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered.
Twenty-five RCTs, of the 48 clinical studies retrieved in total, met the eligibility criteria and are included in the present review. The sources of β-(1→3,1→6)-D-glucans were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes and the dosage of supplementation ranged from 2.5 to 3000 mg daily for up to 6 months. The main physiological outcome for the majority of the interventions was immunomodulation, which resulted in a) strengthened immune defence that reduces the incidence and symptoms of cold, flu and upper respiratory tract infections in general and b) alleviation of allergic symptoms. However, findings on the induction of immune response alterations were inconsistent at a cellular and molecular level. Another aspect is psychological wellbeing, as the cohorts that received the polysaccharides of interest reported improvement of mood state as well as amelioration of the wellbeing overall, while co-administration with chemotherapeutic drugs enhanced cancer patients’ quality of life and prolonged their survival. Furthermore, supplements containing β-(1→3,1→6)-D-glucan induced beneficial changes in body fat mass and abdominal circumference in overweight adults. Notably, no adverse event causally related to the glucans was recorded in any of the trials.
Supplementation with β-(1→3,1→6)-D-glucans is well-tolerated and health-promoting properties are manifested primarily through the potentiation of the immune system. More studies are required in order to confirm additional beneficial effects, establish the optimal dose and reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Simulation plays an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High-quality, simulation-based research will ensure its effective use. This study sought to summarize simulation-based research activity and its facilitators and barriers, as well as establish priorities for simulation-based research in Canadian emergency medicine (EM).
Simulation-leads from Canadian departments or divisions of EM associated with a general FRCP-EM training program surveyed and documented active EM simulation-based research at their institutions and identified the perceived facilitators and barriers. Priorities for simulation-based research were generated by simulation-leads via a second survey; these were grouped into themes and finally endorsed by consensus during an in-person meeting of simulation leads. Priority themes were also reviewed by senior simulation educators.
Twenty simulation-leads representing all 14 invited institutions participated in the study between February and May, 2018. Sixty-two active, simulation-based research projects were identified (median per institution = 4.5, IQR 4), as well as six common facilitators and five barriers. Forty-nine priorities for simulation-based research were reported and summarized into eight themes: simulation in competency-based medical education, simulation for inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology.
This study summarized simulation-based research activity in EM in Canada, identified its perceived facilitators and barriers, and built national consensus on priority research themes. This represents the first step in the development of a simulation-based research agenda specific to Canadian EM.
Our study analysed evolving regional commitments on food policy in the Pacific. Our aim was to understand regional priorities and the context of policy development, to identify opportunities for progress.
We analysed documentation from a decade of regional meetings in order to map regional policy commitments relevant to healthy diets. We focused on agriculture, education, finance, health, and trade sectors, and Heads of State forums. Drawing on relevant political science methodologies, we looked at how these sectors ‘frame’ the drivers of and solutions to non-communicable diseases (NCD), their policy priorities, and identified areas of coherence and tension.
The Pacific has among the highest rates of non-communicable diseases in the world, but also boasts an innovative and proactive response. Heads of State have declared NCD a ‘crisis’ and countries have committed to specific prevention activities set out in a regional ‘Roadmap’. Yet, diet-related NCD risk-factors remain stubbornly high and many countries face challenges in establishing a healthy food environment.
Policies to improve food environments and prevent NCD are a stated priority across regional policy forums, with clear agreement on the need for a multi-sectoral response. However, we identified challenges in sustaining these priorities as political attention fluctuated. We found examples of inconsistencies and tension in sectoral responses to the NCD epidemic that may restrict implementation of the multi-sectoral action.
Understanding the priorities and positions underpinning sectoral responses can help drive a more coherent NCD response, and lessons from the Pacific are relevant to public health nutrition policy and practice globally.
The proper functioning of central lines is imperative for the management of patients with cancer or on hemodialysis. However, these lifelines can become infected and can malfunction.
Chelators such as citrate and EDTA have been widely studied alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agents in catheter lock solutions to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections and to maintain catheter patency. Given their anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, antibiofilm, antimicrobial activity, safety profile, as well as their low cost, chelators have long been considered alternatives to heparin and a vital component of catheter lock solutions. In this review, we present a detailed summary of the properties of chelators and in vitro and in vivo studies of chelator-containing lock solutions.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Exposure to maltreatment during childhood (CM) can have deleterious effects throughout the life span of an individual. A parent's history of child maltreatment can also impact his or her own parenting behavior. Theoretically, parents who experienced maltreatment as children may have fewer resources to cope with the challenges of childrearing and may adopt more problematic parenting behaviors. However, empirical studies examining the association between CM and later parenting behavior have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of studies that have examined the association between exposure to CM and the subsequent parenting outcomes of mothers of 0- to 6-year-old children. A secondary aim is to examine the potential impact of both conceptual and methodological moderators. A total of 32 studies (27 samples, 41 effect sizes, 17,932 participants) were retained for analysis. Results revealed that there is a small but statistically significant association between maternal exposure to CM and parenting behavior (r = –.13, p < .05). Moderator analyses revealed that effect sizes were larger when parenting measures involved relationship-based or negative, potentially abusive behaviors, when samples had a greater number of boys compared to girls, and when studies were older versus more recent. Results are discussed as they relate to the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and abuse.
The objective was to translate into French the American questionnaire “Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture” and to test the feasibility of its use in a sample of nursing homes. The questionnaire was translated by a multidisciplinary group of six experts and tested on a sample of people working in nursing homes. The questionnaire was then administered in five nursing homes. A first version of the French NHSPSC is proposed in this article. Despite similarities between items and ceiling effect for one item, the choices made were conservative to allow international comparisons. The administration of the questionnaire in five nursing homes confirmed the feasibility of the approach, with a participation of more than 50 per cent. This work made a French version of the NHSPSC available and confirmed that it is a feasible method for evaluating safety culture in nursing homes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To diversify the biomedical research workforce by training postdoctoral scholars and junior faculty from 6 Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) on practical research skills such as Critical and Creative Thinking, Formulating the Problem, Asking the Right Question, Grant Writing, and Team Science METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In collaboration with our partners, we identified 11 topics where trainees lack research funding. Next, we identified instructors for these topics. We converted the topics to online module with modules ranging from 2 to 8 weeks. In working with an online education expert, we developed innovative online training using Moodle as the content management system. Scholars complete readings, videos, self-assessments and participate in discussion board each week. In addition, we have weekly synchronous sessions for each module. All scholars are required to take the grant writing module and 8 other modules. After each module, trainees complete a brief survey to evaluate the module. The leaders at the MSI participated in an intensive face-to-face training session on how to be a career coach so that they could be career coaches for the LEADS Scholars at their home institutions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the first year, we selected 13 LEADS Scholars. All but 3 scholars elected to take every module. The 3 scholars did not enroll in the Peer Reviewing module. Results of the brief survey at the end of each module indicate that the scholars value each of the modules and rate them very highly. When 1 scholar wanted to leave the program, we decided to have a conference call with all of the LEADS Scholars to determine what was working and what was not working with the program. All scholars recognized the value of LEADS. Some scholars felt that the weekly synchronous session was too demanding as they have competing demands on their time. We consulted with the leadership at the MSI and decided to modify the requirements of the program such that every synchronous call was not required for successful completion of the module and to earn a badge. Scholars need to have at least 9 badges to earn a certificate. In addition to the training, we decided that scholars would also benefit from mock reviews of their grants. This will help them submit successful grants. We learned that the best way to serve the needs of the scholars is to work iteratively with the scholars and leadership to develop a successful program that most effectively meets their needs of the scholars and helps them launch a successful career. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Postdoctoral scholars and junior faculty from MSI need practical research training to help launch their research career. We suspect that this is true of many institutions and plan to develop these modules so that they can be widely disseminated to other institutions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Obstructive lung disease following particulate matter (PM) exposure is a major health concern. Coexisting metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) often occurs. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is highly expressed in the lung, is a strong predictor of FEV1, and is a key mediator of MetSyn. To determine if the loss of RAGE protects from the persistence of effects of particulate associated lung injury in a murine model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Wild type (WT) and RAGE knockout (RKO) mice were exposed to 100 μg of PM (WTC-Aggregate, PM53) or PBS control by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung function, methacholine challenge, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were quantified 28 days after PM exposure using flexiVent (Scireq Montreal, QC). BAL was obtained and cell differentials, cytokines and transcription factors were assayed. Bio-volume to airspace ratio and mean chord length were measured (Image J and Adobe Photoshop). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: WT mice were hyper-reactive to methacholine compared with their PBS controls 28 days after a single exposure to PM. They recovered from increased neutrophilia, loss of FEV, decreased compliance, and increased resistance, which were previously observed 24-hours after exposure. RKO were not hyper-reactive when compared with their own PBS controls. Lung histology shows persistence of loss of alveolar space in WT mice exposed to PM after 28 days. Area fraction was significantly higher in PM exposed WT mice after 28 days which was not significant after 24 hours. Mean chord length was significantly shorter for PM exposed at both time points for WT mice. The relative expression of phosphorylated to total CREB and ERK1/2 proteins was lower in RKO PM exposed mice compared with WT PM while STAT3 expression was lower in WT PM compared with WT PBS. PM induced a lower fold change of total proteins from the PBS controls in RKO for CREB, p38, ERK1/2, STAT3, and STAT5. JNK and p70S6k total proteins expressed a decreased fold change in WT PM exposed mice compared with WT PBS controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: A single dose of PM can produce persistent airway hyper-reactivity after 28 days of exposure. This PM induced injury is alleviated in the absence of RAGE, similar to what was seen at 24 hours. Inhibiting RAGE may be key to limiting the persistent inflammatory effects of high intensity PM exposure.