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Since the first reporting of ketamine’s antidepressant effects in 2000, there has been growing public interest in this novel rapid-acting treatment for depression despite its abuse potential. Online media is an increasingly popular way for the general public to source information. Our objective was to examine how online news outlets have portrayed ketamine as an antidepressant by ascertaining the volume and content of relevant articles and trends over time.
In this semi-quantitative study, we identified articles regarding ketamine’s use in depression from the 30 most popular English-language online news-generating sources over 18 years (2000–2017). Articles were then blindly assessed by 2 independent raters, who analysed the texts by quantifying the presence/absence of 12 content items.
We identified 97 articles, the number of which has increased since the first online news report in 2006. Most (69%) came from the USA and nearly all correctly stated the indications for ketamine. About half of the most recent articles mentioned abuse potential and 27% of articles referred to risks of unregulated use of ketamine. Just under 20% of articles referred to the lack of evidence regarding direct comparisons between ketamine and other currently available antidepressants. There was no difference in the overall level of detail within the articles during the study time period.
Online news media articles have been generally positive about ketamine for treating depression but need to be interpreted with caution as many of them did not discuss negative aspects of ketamine and made unsubstantiated claims about ketamine.
In this paper, we examine how the Chinese state controls social media. While social media companies are responsible for censoring their platforms, they also selectively report certain users to the government. This article focuses on understanding the logic behind media platforms’ decisions to report users or content to the government. We find that content is less relevant than commonly thought. Information control efforts often focus on who is posting rather than on what they are posting. The state permits open discussion and debate on social media while controlling and managing influential social forces that may challenge the party-state's hegemonic position. We build on Schurmann's “ideology and organization,” emphasizing the Party's goals of embedding itself in all social structures and limiting the ability of non-Party individuals, networks or groups to carve out a separate space for leadership and social status. In the virtual public sphere, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continues to apply these principles to co-opt, repress and limit the reach of influential non-Party “thought leaders.” We find evidence to support this logic through qualitative and quantitative analysis of leaked censorship documents from a social media company and government documents on information control.
Approximately one quarter of children living in Northern Ireland are overweight or obese. Intelligent personal systems (IPS) such as Amazon Echo and Google Home have become increasingly integrated into the home setting and therefore, may facilitate behaviour change via novel interactions or as an adjunct to conventional interventions. However, little is currently known about their potential role in this context; therefore, the aim of this feasibility study is to assess the effect of a home-based technology intervention (delivered using Amazon Echo) on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits in families attending the Safe Wellbeing Eating & Exercise Together (SWEET) project, a community-based health promotion programme. Recruitment to the study is ongoing with the aim of recruiting up to 16 families. Families are randomly assigned to receive an IPS (n = 8) or assigned to control (n = 8) i.e. attend the SWEET project as usual, for 12 weeks. Individualised prompts and reminders, aligned with the content of the SWEET project, are regularly delivered to families via the IPS and normal interaction with the device is also encouraged. The primary outcome measure is PA, which will be objectively measured using an Actigraph accelerometer, and secondary outcome measures include body mass index (BMI) and family eating and activity habits. Process evaluation data from focus groups and device interaction will be used to determine the feasibility of using IPS to promote healthy behaviours within the home setting. To date, 11 families have been recruited (11 adults, 90.9% F; 16 children, 56.3% F), mean age 40.4 ± 5.5 years and BMI 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2 for adults and 8.9 ± 2.1 years and BMI z-score 2.61 ± 1.23 for children. Average moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was dichotomised to determine the percentage of adults and children meeting the UK (2011) PA guidelines for health. In total, 62.5% of adults reached the recommended level of 150 minutes MVPA per week before the intervention (n = 8;191.50 ± 81.10 minutes), with 40% of children reaching the recommended level of 60 minutes MVPA each day of the week (n = 10; M = 52.83 ± 31.07 minutes). Follow-up measurements will be taken at the end of the intervention and acceptability and usability of such devices within the context of promoting healthy behaviours will be assessed. The findings from this feasibility study will demonstrate whether the use of IPS can increase PA in adults and children, as well as provide novel insights into the feasibility of using these devices to facilitate behaviour change.
We assessed whether implementation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry without antimicrobial stewardship support would impact antimicrobial utilization and clinical outcomes in inpatient pneumonia. Implementation significantly reduced time to organism identification and time to optimal therapy but did not have a detectable impact on clinical outcomes.
This article explores the role of formal education and specific legal knowledge in the process of legal mobilization. Using survey data and in-depth case narratives of workplace disputes in China, we highlight three major findings. First, and uncontroversially, higher levels of formal education are associated with greater propensity to use legal institutions and to find them more effective. Second, informally acquired labor law knowledge can substitute for formal education in bringing people to the legal system and improving their legal experiences. The Chinese state's propagation of legal knowledge has had positive effects on citizens' legal mobilization. Finally, while education and legal knowledge are factors that push people toward the legal system, actual dispute experience leads people away from it, especially among disputants without effective legal representation. The article concludes that the Chinese state's encouragement of individualized legal mobilization produces contradictory outcomes—encouraging citizens to use formal legal institutions, imbuing them with new knowledge and rights awareness, but also breeding disdain for the law in practice.
Can authoritarian regimes use democratic institutions to strengthen and solidify their rule? The Chinese government has legislated some of the most protective workplace laws in the world and opened up the judicial system to adjudicate workplace conflict, emboldening China's workers to use these laws. This book examines these patterns of legal mobilization, showing which workers are likely to avail themselves of these new protections and find them effective. Gallagher finds that workers with high levels of education are far more likely to claim these new rights and be satisfied with the results. However, many others, left disappointed with the large gap between law on the books and law in reality, reject the courtroom for the streets. Using workers' narratives, surveys, and case studies of protests, Gallagher argues that China's half-hearted attempt at rule of law construction undermines the stability of authoritarian rule. New workplace rights fuel workers' rising expectations, but a dysfunctional legal system drives many workers to more extreme options, including strikes, demonstrations and violence.