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Psychotic experiences (PE) are common in the general population, in particular in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PE have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for later psychotic disorders, mental disorders, and poorer functioning. Recent findings have highlighted the relevance of PE to many fields of healthcare, including treatment response in clinical services for anxiety & depression treatment, healthcare costs and service use. Despite PE relevance to many areas of mental health, and healthcare research, there remains a gap of information between PE researchers and experts in other fields. With this review, we aim to bridge this gap by providing a broad overview of the current state of PE research, and future directions. This narrative review aims to provide an broad overview of the literature on psychotic experiences, under the following headings: (1) Definition and Measurement of PE; (2) Risk Factors for PE; (3) PE and Health; (4) PE and Psychosocial Functioning; (5) Interventions for PE, (6) Future Directions.
Background: Postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) include fatigue, dyspnea, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Few studies have explored the prevalence or presentation of PASC among nursing home (NH) residents. Method: A case–control study was conducted at 1 NH in Michigan in December 2021. Cases were defined as residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection between November 2, 2020, and October 8, 2021. Controls lived at the same NH during this interval and never tested positive for SARS CoV-2. Patient characteristics were compared between cases and controls using the Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Primary outcomes were functional decline, cognition, and adverse health outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by comparing measures on last observation to observations before COVID-19 diagnosis (cases) or to earliest observation (controls). Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlation between COVID-19 diagnosis and outcomes. Results: In total, 152 residents were identified for inclusion (147 included in final analyses, 76 cases, 71 controls); 5 were excluded due to insufficient data. We collected the following resident characteristics: 66% were aged ≥80 years; 73% were female; 95% were non-Hispanic white; 82% were long-stay residents; median of 3 comorbidities (IQR, 2–4). The mean number of follow-up observations was 2.60 (SD, 1.25). No significant differences in population characteristics were detected between cases and controls. Moreover, 106 patients (46 cases and 60 controls) had at least 1 follow-up visit and were thus included in the analyses to evaluate long-term outcomes. Among them, cases experienced significant declines in completing transfers (OR 5.65, p Conclusions: Nursing home residents with COVID-19 are more likely to enter hospice and have a higher mortality rate in the year following infection. Survivors experience significant functional decline in basic activities of daily living, specifically in the ability to transfer and dress. Larger studies are needed to further characterize our findings and to design interventions that can help overcome these long-term sequelae from COVID-19.
There are fewer Certified Organic producers in the Mid-South US (southern half of Missouri, western Kentucky and Tennessee, northern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma) than in other regions of the country such as the Upper Midwest, West Coast, or Northeastern US. Taus et al. (2013) The Professional Geographer 65, 87–102, posit that these clusters suggest regional characteristics impact adoption of organic agriculture and admit that regional studies lack consensus on the role of factors that drive adoption. This paper seeks to understand if there are regionally distinct challenges and opportunities for organic production in the region. Fourteen certified organic producers in Missouri were interviewed and areas of challenges and opportunities specific to their certification were identified within the three a priori themes of (1) biophysical characteristics, (2) marketing infrastructure and (3) financial feasibility. We suggest directions for future policy support from the National Organic Program (NOP) and bolstered feedback structures within the National Organic Standards Board to address regional disparities.
Partial equilibrium models have been used extensively by policy makers to prospectively determine the consequences of government programs that affect consumer incomes or the prices consumers pay. However, these models have not previously been used to analyze government programs that inform consumers. In this paper, we develop a model that policy makers can use to quantitatively predict how consumers will respond to risk communications that contain new health information. The model combines Bayesian learning with the utility-maximization of consumer choice. We discuss how this model can be used to evaluate information policies; we then test the model by simulating the impacts of the North Dakota Folic Acid Educational Campaign as a validation exercise.
Introduces the motivating questions of the book and discusses the concept of human rights as an international practice. What is the relationship of care to justice; how did human rights advocates develop important practices to advance justice; and why did anti-povery groups adopt rights-based language in development practice? My working hypothesis is that human rights advocates have developed a lasting set of tools for pursuing justice, amounting to a justice-seeking practice. Offers an overview of the book.
Considers how rights have been used to address economic and social justice. Social and economic justice advocates turned toward what is commonly called a rights-based approach to development, beginning in the 1990s. The case study in this chapter traces how and why Oxfam recast its goals as a set of what it called “basic rights.” Incorporated original interviews and archival research to outline Oxfam’s adoption of human rights language in its aid and economic justice advocacy work. Rights-based advocacy by development groups was taken up at the same time that traditional human rights NGOs hotly debated how and whether to take up economic, social, and cultural rights more directly. Argues that the emergence of rights arguments in development work demonstrate the potential flexibility of human rights tools in justice-seeking.
Incorporates first-person interviews with people who invented and implemented Amnesty International’s Urgent Action approach to demonstrate how early human rights advocacy implemented three tools of the justice of neighborhood - active care, habit, and appeals - and became a bridge to further political realization of justice. The chapter begins with a focus on a critical period in the early 1970s, when Amnesty International transitioned from working only for people imprisoned for nonviolent speech or beliefs, protected as “human rights” in articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to fighting to protect all people from torture and other forms of ill-treatment. Discusses the development of the Urgent Action approach in the USA and Germany. Discusses Amnesty International’s present-day Urgent Action approaches and questions related to effectiveness.
Discusses the book’s findings and sums up lessons of the study for the conduct of international politics. Argues that human rights work has contributed significant, politically embedded global resources for justice-seeking. The resources as they now exist support active transnational concern for individuals in diverse circumstances, offer a language of appeals for issues related to justice, and inspire the search for more justice in global politics.
Demands of Justice draws on original interviews and archival research to show how global appeals for human rights began in the 1970s to expand the boundaries of the global neighbourhood and disseminate new arguments about humane concern and law in direct opposition to human rights violations. Turning a justice lens on human rights practice, Clark argues that human rights practice offers tools that enrich three facets of global justice: transnational expressions of simple concern, the political realization of justice through politics and law, and new but still incomplete approaches to social justice. A key case study explores the origins of Amnesty International's well-known Urgent Action alerts for individuals, as well as temporal change in the use of law in such appeals. A second case study, of Oxfam's adoption of rights language, demonstrates the spread of human rights as a primary way of expressing calls for justice in the world.
Theorizes three facets of global justice that were introduced in the preceding chapter. Each is addressed in different aspects of human rights practice, and each has its own repertoire, or set of tools, for justice seeking. Although they overlap, they are also time-ordered and somewhat cumulative. The first aspect of justice is the development of Samaritan-like care and concern for the conditions that prevent people from living free and full lives. Human rights actors linked human rights action to a notion of care that broadens the appropriate subject of care to a global neighborhood. The second aspect pertains to an institutional structure in which legal norms offer independent standards of justice. Human rights actors generated arguments based on law and concern that transformed rights into a language of legal justice and accountability that can be employed in appeals to power holders. The third aspect calls for the integration of social justice into politics as human rights standards upholding economic, social, and cultural equity, including gender and racial inclusion.
Discusses the links between human rights and selected treatments of justice in the scholarly literature. Discusses ideal vs. non-ideal theories of justice. Drawing on this literature, identifies three elements of the search for justice in international politics that are illuminated when we observe the dynamics of human rights work: (1) a justice of care extended to a global neighborhood; (2) a culture of argument incorporating law in appeals to political authority; and (3) social justice.