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Diagnosis of CHD substantially affects parent mental health and family functioning, thereby influencing child neurodevelopmental and psychosocial outcomes. Recognition of the need to proactively support parent mental health and family functioning following cardiac diagnosis to promote psychosocial adaptation has increased substantially over recent years. However, significant gaps in knowledge remain and families continue to report critical unmet psychosocial needs. The Parent Mental Health and Family Functioning Working Group of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative was formed in 2018 through support from an R13 grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to identify significant knowledge gaps related to parent mental health and family functioning, as well as critical questions that must be answered to further knowledge, policy, care, and outcomes. Conceptually driven investigations are needed to identify parent mental health and family functioning factors with the strongest influence on child outcomes, to obtain a deeper understanding of the biomarkers associated with these factors, and to better understand how parent mental health and family functioning influence child outcomes over time. Investigations are also needed to develop, test, and implement sustainable models of mental health screening and assessment, as well as effective interventions to optimise parent mental health and family functioning to promote psychosocial adaptation. The critical questions and investigations outlined in this paper provide a roadmap for future research to close gaps in knowledge, improve care, and promote positive outcomes for families of children with CHD.
Mental health problems early in life can negatively impact educational attainment, which in turn have negative long-term effects on health, social and economic opportunities. Our aims were to: (i) estimate the impacts of different types of psychiatric conditions on educational outcomes and (ii) to estimate the proportion of adverse educational outcomes which can be attributed to psychiatric conditions.
Participants (N = 2511) were from a school-based community cohort of Brazilian children and adolescents aged 6–14 years enriched for high family risk of psychiatric conditions. We examined the impact of fear- (panic, separation and social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia and anxiety conditions not otherwise specified), distress- (generalised anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and depressive disorder not otherwise specified, bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, tic, eating and post-traumatic stress disorder) and externalising-related conditions (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, conduct and oppositional-defiant conditions) on grade repetition, dropout, age-grade distortion, literacy performance and bullying perpetration, 3 years later. Psychiatric conditions were ascertained by psychiatrists, using the Development and Well-Being Behaviour Assessment. Propensity score and inverse probability weighting were used to adjust for potential confounders, including comorbidity, and sample attrition. We calculated the population attributable risk percentages to estimate the proportion of adverse educational outcomes in the population which could be attributed to psychiatric conditions. Analyses were conducted separately for males and females.
Fear and distress conditions in males were associated with school dropout (odds ratio (OR) = 2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 7.22; p < 0.05) and grade repetition (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.32, 5.78; p < 0.01), respectively. Externalising conditions were associated with grade repetition in males (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.64; p < 0.05) and females (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.58; p < 0.05), as well as age-grade distortion in males (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.62; p < 0.05) and females (OR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.14; p < 0.001). Externalising conditions were also associated with lower literacy levels (β = −0.23; 95% CI = −0.34, −0.12; p < 0.001) and bullying perpetration (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.50, 6.51; p < 0.001) in females. If all externalising conditions were prevented or treated, we estimate that 5.0 and 4.8% of grade repetition would not have occurred in females and males, respectively, as well as 10.2 (females) and 5.3% (males) of age-grade distortion cases and 11.4% of female bullying perpetration.
The study provides evidence of the negative impact of psychiatric conditions on educational outcomes in a large Brazilian cohort. Externalising conditions had the broadest and most robust negative impacts on education and these were particularly harmful to females which are likely to limit future socio-economic opportunities.
Despite improving survival rates, people with advanced cancer face several physical and psychosocial concerns. Leisure-time physical activity (LPA) has been found to be beneficial after cancer diagnosis, but little is known about the current state of research exploring LPA in advanced cancer. Our objectives were to (a) map the literature examining LPA in people with advanced cancer, (b) report on the terms used to describe the advanced cancer population within the literature, and (c) examine how the concept of LPA is operationalized within the literature.
Our scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. We performed a search of 11 electronic databases and supplementary sources (February 2018; database search updated January 2020). Two reviewers independently reviewed and selected articles according to the inclusion criteria: English-language journal articles on original primary research studies exploring LPA in adults diagnosed with advanced cancer. Descriptive and thematic analyses were performed.
Ninety-two articles met our criteria. Most included studies were published in the last decade (80%) and used quantitative methods (77%). Many study populations included mixed (40%), breast (21%), or lung (17%) cancers. Stages 3–4 or metastatic disease were frequently indicated to describe study populations (77%). Several studies (68%) described LPA programs or interventions. Of these, 78% involved structured aerobic/resistance exercise, while 16% explored other LPA types.
Significance of results
This review demonstrates a recent surge in research exploring LPA in advanced cancer, particularly studies examining exercise interventions with traditional quantitative methods. There remains insufficient knowledge about patient experiences and perceptions toward LPA. Moreover, little is known about other leisure activities (e.g., Tai Chi, dance, and sports) for this population. To optimize the benefits of LPA in people with advanced cancer, research is needed to address the gaps in the current literature and to develop personalized, evidence-based supportive care strategies in cancer care.
Clinical assessments are a primary method for ascertaining suicide risk, yet the language used across measures is inconsistent. The implications of these discrepancies for adolescent responding are unknown, which is troubling as multiple research areas (i.e. on culture, mental health language, and suicide communication) indicate individuals from varying sociodemographic backgrounds may communicate differently regarding mental health concerns. The aims of the current study are to investigate whether a geographically diverse sample of adolescents respond differently to directly and indirectly phrased suicide attempt questions (i.e. directly phrased includes the term ‘suicide’ and indirectly asks about suicidal behavior without using ‘suicide’), and to examine whether sociodemographic factors and history of mental health service usage relate to endorsement differences.
Participants were N = 5909 adolescents drawn from the Emergency Department Screening for Teens at Risk for Suicide multi-site study. The lifetime suicide attempt was assessed with two items from an adapted version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS; Posner et al., 2008): (1) a directly phrased question asking about ‘suicide attempts’ and (2) an indirectly phrased question providing the definition of an attempt.
An adolescent majority (83.7%) consistently reported no lifetime suicide attempt across items, 10.1% consistently reported one or more lifetime attempts across items, and 6.2% of adolescents responded discordantly to the items.
Multivariable models indicated multiple demographic and mental health service variables significantly predicted discordant responding, with a notable finding being that father/stepfather education level at or below high school education predicted endorsing only the direct question.
Catatonia is a psychomotor dysregulation syndrome of diverse aetiology, increasingly recognised as a prominent feature of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE) in adults. No study to date has systematically assessed the prevalence and symptomatology of catatonia in children with NMDARE. We analysed 57 paediatric patients with NMDARE from the literature using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Catatonia was common (occurring in 86% of patients), manifesting as complex clusters of positive and negative features within individual patients. It was both underrecognised and undertreated. Immunotherapy was the only effective intervention, highlighting the importance of prompt recognition and treatment of the underlying cause of catatonia.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) serve as one of the most common infections affecting women. With rising reports of antibiotic resistance (ABR), which can prolong illness and limit treatment options, the Infectious Disease Society of America recommends using local resistance patterns to shape empirical treatment selection. Although no studies have evaluated ABR in Ureaplasma spp. urinary isolates in college-aged women, regional studies in the Southeast United States have found levels of tetracycline resistance in over 30% of Ureaplasma spp. clinical isolates. Thus, this study aims to determine the antibiogram for 73 Ureaplasma spp. and 10 Mycoplasma hominis isolates collected from women with first-time UTI against a panel of 9 antibiotics, and assess resistant isolates for genetic mechanisms associated with resistance. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study used archival samples and data collected from college-aged women with first-time UTI recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study conducted at a student healthcare facility from 2001 to 2006 in Florida. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis isolates cultured from urine samples collected at the initial clinical presentation and for any recurrent UTI were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 9 antibiotics (8 for M. hominis) using validated microbroth and agar dilution methods, respectively. Ureaplasma spp. isolates were tested against azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. M. hominis isolates underwent the same testing, with the addition of linezolid and exclusion of azithromycin and erythromycin, as M. hominis is intrinsically resistance to 14 and 15-membered macrolides and azilides. PCR and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify molecular mechanisms associated with resistance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 73 Ureaplasma spp. isolates, 1 isolate was resistant to levofloxacin (MIC: 4 µg/mL) and 1 to tetracycline (MIC: 8 µg/mL). All M. hominis isolates were sensitive. For the Ureaplasma spp. isolates, MIC90s were highest against gentamicin (32 µg/mL) and lowest against doxycycline (0.25 µg/mL). PCR amplification identified tetM present in the tetracycline resistant isolate, an established gene associated with tetracycline resistance in Ureaplasma spp. A S83W mutation within the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of parC was detected in the levofloxacin resistant isolate. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Overall, antibiotic resistance in this population of college-aged women with first-time UTI was low. A previous study detected a novel S83W substitution in a perinatal Ureaplasma spp. isolate from Japan, and provided in silico evidence that a S83W change would prevent levofloxacin from binding to its target. However, that study was unable to cultivate the isolate. Our study has provided the corresponding phenotypic evidence that a S83W substitution results in quinolone resistance in Ureaplasma spp.
The borderline between the periods commonly termed "medieval" and "Renaissance", or "medieval" and "early modern", is one of the most hotly, energetically and productively contested faultlines in literary history studies. The essays presented in this volume both build upon and respond to the work of Professor Helen Cooper, a scholar who has long been committed to exploring the complex connectionsand interactions between medieval and Renaissance literature. The contributors re-examine a range of ideas, authors and genres addressed in her work, including pastoral, chivalric romance, early English drama, and the writings of Chaucer, Langland, Spenser and Shakespeare. As a whole, the volume aims to stimulate active debates on the ways in which Renaissance writers used, adapted, and remembered aspects of the medieval.
Andrew King is Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at University College, Cork; Matthew Woodcock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of East Anglia.
Contributors: Joyce Boro, Aisling Byrne, Nandini Das, Mary C. Flannery, Alexandra Gillespie, Andrew King, Megan G. Leitch, R.W. Maslen, Jason Powell,Helen Vincent, James Wade, Matthew Woodcock
A chlorine gas release occurred at a poultry processing plant as a result of an accidental mixing of sodium hypochlorite and an acidic antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the public health and emergency medical services response and developed and disseminated public health recommendations to limit the impact of future incidents.
We conducted key informant interviews with the state health department; local fire, emergency medical services, and police departments; county emergency management; and representatives from area hospitals to understand the response mechanisms employed for this incident.
After being exposed to an estimated 40-pound chlorine gas release, 170 workers were triaged on the scene and sent to 5 area hospitals. Each hospital redistributed staff or called in extra staff (eg, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) in response to the event. Interviews with hospital staff emphasized the need for improved communication with responders at the scene of a chemical incident.
While responding, hospitals handled the patient surge without outside assistance because of effective planning, training, and drilling. The investigation highlighted that greater interagency communication can play an important role in ensuring that chemical incident patients are managed and treated in a timely manner. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:553–556)
Data on best practices for evacuating an intensive care unit (ICU) during a disaster are limited. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York City area hospitals provided a unique opportunity to learn from the experience of ICU providers about their preparedness, perspective, roles, and activities.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians who played direct roles during the Hurricane Sandy ICU evacuations.
Sixty-eight health care professionals from 4 evacuating hospitals completed surveys (35% ICU nurses, 21% respiratory therapists, 25% physicians-in-training, and 13% attending physicians). Only 21% had participated in an ICU evacuation drill in the past 2 years and 28% had prior training or real-life experience. Processes were inconsistent for patient prioritization, tracking, transport medications, and transport care. Respondents identified communication (43%) as the key barrier to effective evacuation. The equipment considered most helpful included flashlights (24%), transport sleds (21%), and oxygen tanks and respiratory therapy supplies (19%). An evacuation wish list included walkie-talkies/phones (26%), lighting/electricity (18%), flashlights (10%), and portable ventilators and suction (16%).
ICU providers who evacuated critically ill patients during Hurricane Sandy had little prior knowledge of evacuation processes or vertical evacuation experience. The weakest links in the patient evacuation process were communication and the availability of practical tools. Incorporating ICU providers into hospital evacuation planning and training, developing standard evacuation communication processes and tools, and collecting a uniform dataset among all evacuating hospitals could better inform critical care evacuation in the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:20–27)