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The Rostania occultata species complex (‘Collema occultatum s. lat.’) is revised in Fennoscandia and found to consist of four species, all epiphytes on deciduous trees: Rostania effusa A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin sp. nov., R. occultata (Bagl.) Otálora et al., R. pallida A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin sp. nov. and R. populina (Th. Fr.) A. Košuth., M. Westb. & Wedin comb. nov. Rostania effusa and R. pallida are newly described from humid habitats in old-growth boreal coniferous forests, usually with a mixture of deciduous trees, and from similar areas in the subalpine birch-dominated forests of Fennoscandia. Rostania effusa is characterized by apothecia with red-brown apothecium discs and an excipulum thallinum with a simple pseudocortex and cubic to oblong, muriform spores. Rostania pallida has apothecia with whitish to pale yellowish discs and an excipulum thallinum with a distinct cellular pseudocortex, and ellipsoid, muriform mature spores that are often constricted at the centre. A lectotype is designated for Collema quadratum J. Lahm ex Körb. The new combination Rostania populina is introduced for the species recognized until now as the variety Rostania occultata var. populina (Th. Fr.) Perlmutter & Rivas Plata. A key to the six species in Rostania s. str. is included.
The lichenicolous ‘heterobasidiomycetes’ belong in the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina) and in the Pucciniomycotina. In this paper, we provide an introduction and review of these lichenicolous taxa, focusing on recent studies and novelties of their classification, phylogeny and evolution. Lichen-inhabiting fungi in the Pucciniomycotina are represented by only a small number of species included in the genera Chionosphaera, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma. The phylogenetic position of the lichenicolous representatives of Chionosphaera has, however, never been investigated by molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Chionosphaera form a monophyletic group in the Pucciniomycotina, distinct from Chionosphaera and outside the Chionosphaeraceae. The new genus Crittendenia is described to accommodate these lichen-inhabiting species. Crittendenia is characterized by minute synnemata-like basidiomata, the presence of clamp connections and aseptate tubular basidia from which 4–7 spores discharge passively, often in groups. Crittendenia, Cyphobasidium and Lichenozyma are the only lichenicolous lineages known so far in the Pucciniomycotina, whereas Chionosphaera does not include any lichenicolous taxa.
Acarospora brodoana K. Knudsen, Kocourk. & M. Westb. is described from the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. A black hypothecium distinguishes it from other species with a carbonized epihymenium. Sarcogyne albothallina K. Knudsen, Wheeler & M. Westb. is described from the Missouri Breaks in Montana. A white non-farinose thallus and production of 4-O-methylhiascic acid distinguishes it from other species with a carbonized epihymenium. Both species would previously have been placed in Polysporina. The current reported diversity of Acarosporaceae in North America north of Mexico is 93 species.
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships in the cyanolichen family Placynthiaceae to test the current generic delimitations, where the monotypic Collolechia is currently accepted as distinct, based on differences in ascospores, ascus apex characteristics and the leprose thallus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of two sequence marker datasets confirmed that Collolechia caesia is nested within Placynthium, and should be called Placynthium caesium (Fr.) Jatta. We reassessed the spore and ascus characteristics and showed that Placynthium caesium falls well within the variation in Placynthium and is thus yet another example of a species that differs from close relatives by its crustose-leprose thallus structure.
The new genus Silobia M. Westb. & Wedin is proposed for the Acarospora smaragdula group, which is taxonomically and nomenclaturally revised in Sweden. The proposed taxonomy results from our former molecular phylogeny, together with morphological and anatomical investigations and analysis of secondary metabolites. Seven species are recognized in Sweden in this paper: Silobia dilatata sp. nov., S. myochroa sp. nov., S. rhagadiza comb. nov., S. rufescens comb. nov., S. scabrida comb. nov., S. smaragdula comb. nov. and S. tangerina sp. nov. Acarospora alberti, A. amphibola, A. isortoquensis, A. murina and A. undata are recognized as synonyms of S. smaragdula, Acarospora verruciformis as a synonym of S. scabrida and A. scyphulifera as a synonym of S. rhagadiza. The following names are lectotypified: Acarospora amphibola, A. amphibola f. testacea, A. lesdainii, A. lesdainii var. subochracea, A. murina, A. scyphulifera f. subdiscreta, Endocarpon smaragdulum, Lecanora rhagadiza and Sagedia rufescens. Acarospora scyphulifera is neotypified. Acarospora fusca is excluded from the Swedish checklist as the specimen was found to belong to S. rufescens. A key to the species is presented.
A monograph of the genus Placomaronea is presented; all species described earlier are revised, a total of six species is recognized, and an identification key is presented. In addition to the three previously known species, P. candelarioides, P. lambii and P. mendozae, three new species are described: Placomaronea kaernefeltii is a large rosette-like species known from one locality in northernmost Chile; Placomaronea fuegiana is a bullate, areolate species described from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina; Placomaronea minima is a small, areolate to minutely lobate species described from Chile and Argentina, and is the first species of Placomaronea to be reported from the African continent. In a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ITS rDNA, Placomaronea is shown to form a monophyletic group within the Candelariales.
The morphology and the anatomy of the 13 species presently included in the genus Fulgensia were surveyed. Caloplaca aurea and C. paulii, two speciesregarded as closely related to Fulgensia by earlier authors, were also included in the study. Fulgensia was found to exhibit a great variation in both morphology and anatomy. The differences in size, shape and septation of the spores, in the anatomy of cortex and exciple, and in the gross morphology, will presumably motivate a different taxonomic treatment in the future. A tentative separation of the species into four different groups is proposed here. Group A comprises F. australis and F. chanousiae, which appear close to species in Caloplaca sect. Gasparrinia. Groups B and C, each comprises one species, F. schistidii and F. canariensis respectively and group D comprises the remaining nine species, including the type species F. fulgens. The last group may be further split by a more detailed investigation. The present separation of Fulgensia into two subgenera cannot be regarded as taxonomically sound. The genus is probably polyphyletic and the different groups are probably related to different groups within the large genus Caloplaca.
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