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The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of bicuspid aortic valve on contemporary outcomes, including reoperation rates, after one-stage correction for interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect or for aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch and ventricular septal defect.
Seventy-four consecutive patients (35 boys, 47% and 39 girls, 53%) with interrupted aortic arch (n = 41, 55%) or aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch (n = 33, 45%) with ventricular septal defect underwent early one-stage correction. Twenty (27%) patients had bicuspid aortic valve, and the remaining 54 (73%) had a tricuspid aortic valve. The median aortic valve annulus diameter was 6.0 mm (IQR: 2.0). Patients’ median age was 7 ± 29 days (range, 2–150); median weight was 3.3 ± 0.7 kg (range, 1.5–6.0), with 21 (28%) patients <3.0 kg. Selective brain perfusion through the innominate artery and selective coronary perfusion through the aortic root during aortic arch reconstruction were used in all patients. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
The early mortality was 1.3%. One premature neonate died in the hospital with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after aortic coarctation plus ventricular septal defect repair. There was no further mortality. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (IQR: 10.48). Reinterventions occurred in 36 (49%) patients: balloon angioplasty in 18 (24%) patients, reoperations in 4 (5%) patients, and both in 14 (19%) patients. A total of 86 follow-up procedures were required in these 36 (49%) patients: aortic valve valvulopasty (n = 6, 8%), stent implantation (n = 8, 11%), balloon dilatation (n = 39, 53%), and reoperation (n = 33, 45%). The median time to reinterventions was 9.094 years (SE 0.890). A potential risk factor for reintervention after interrupted aortic arch and aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect repair was bicuspid aortic valve (p = 0.019, Chi2 (1) = 5.457). In addition, a multivariate Cox analysis with backward selection and significance level <0.015 was applied to all variables that showed significant effects in univariable analyzes. This regression confirmed that bicuspid aortic valve (HR = 0.381, p = .016), and interrupted aortic arch (HR = 0.412, p = 0.043) were predictors of late reintervention. All patients had no obvious neurologic impairment in routine examinations at last follow-up.
Bicuspid aortic valve was a significant risk factor for valve-related reintervention after one-stage repair for aortic arch obstruction with ventricular septal defect due to later development of stenosis associated with higher late morbidity and mortality. Particularly neonates with bicuspid aortic valve will possibly require reintervention in the future. Regular lifelong cardiac follow-up is recommended.
Myocardial bridging is a congenital coronary artery anomaly in which the coronary artery has a partly “tunnelled” intramyocardial course. This tunnelling leads to compression of the affected vessel segment during ventricular systole. It is considered to be a benign variation of the norm in about 25% of the population caused by an aberrancy of embryologic coronary development. The bridging is also thought to cause severe cardiac conditions in a few of those affected. The series of six young patients presented here is the largest series so far to report on symptomatic myocardial bridging in children with different underlying heart diseases. All patients recently presented to our centre with signs of myocardial ischaemia. They subsequently underwent coronary angiography, which revealed myocardial bridging of the ramus interventricularis anterior. In all patients, therapy with β blockers was started to reduce heart rate and myocardial contractility. β Blocker treatment was also given in order to prolong diastole and improve coronary artery blood flow. Two patients underwent surgical exposure of the involved coronary segment: a 2-year-old boy because of recurrent, severe myocardial ischaemia in combination with a reduction of general health, changes in ST-segments, and the presence of a dilative cardiomyopathy; and a 13-year-old girl because of evidence of myocardial ischaemia during exercise testing after surviving sudden cardiac death. Surgery was successful and recovery was complete and uneventful. The presented series shows that myocardial bridging can be symptomatic and may require urgent treatment and even surgical intervention in early childhood in rare cases.
A case of left main coronary artery stenosis is presented in a boy late after an arterial switch operation, with significant ischaemia during exercise with good collateralisation through the right coronary artery. The problem was successfully managed with minimally invasive off-pump coronary artery bypass through median re-sternotomy.
Tetralogy of Fallot, when associated with atrioventricular septal defect permitting shunting at ventricular level, represents a complex cyanotic congenital malformation. Experience with surgical repair is limited, and results vary considerably. Between 1984 and 1996, we repaired 14 consecutive patients with this combination seen in our center. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 21 years (median 7.4 years). Six (42.9%) had Down's syndrome. In eight patients the correct diagnosis was made using echocardiogra phy alone. In the remaining six patients, who had previously-constructed arterial shunts and/or suspected pulmonary arterial stenosis, catheterization and angiocardiography were also performed. The repair consisted of double patch closure of the septal defect, reconstruction of two atrioventricular orifices, and relief of pulmonary stenosis at all levels. In five patients with a hypoplastic pulmonary trunk, a monocusp transannular patch (four patients) or an allograft (one patient) was used for restroration of continuity from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. Patch enlargement of one or both pulmonary arteries was necessary in five patients. One patient (7.1%) died early, and another late. The twelve surviving (85.8%) patients have been followed for 1.2–12.5 years after surgery (median 4.9 years, mean 5.9 ± 3.9 years). During the follow-up, reoperation was necessary for repair of residual ventricular septal defect and pulmonary regurgitation in two patients, and closure of an atrial septal defect and alteration to left atrioventricular valvar regurgitation in one patient. Seven patients are in class I of the New York Heart Association, four in class II, and one in class III. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with atrioventricular septal defect can be corrected with low mortality and good long-term results. Residual lesions, however, have a tendency to progress, especially when seen in combination. After surgery, all patients need long-term close follow-up.
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