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Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
Cascading effects of high trophic levels onto lower trophic levels have been documented in many ecosystems. Some studies also show evidence of extended trophic cascades, in which guilds dependent on lower trophic levels, but uninvolved in the trophic cascade themselves, are affected by the trophic cascade due to their dependence on lower trophic levels. Top-down effects of large mammals on plants could lead to a variety of extended trophic cascades on the many guilds dependent on plants, such as pollinators. In this study, floral-visitor and floral abundances and assemblages were quantified within a series of 1-ha manipulations of large-mammalian herbivore density in an African savanna. Top-down effects of large mammals on the composition of flowers available for floral visitors are first shown, using regressions of herbivore activity on metrics of floral and floral-visitor assemblages. An extended trophic cascade is also shown: the floral assemblage further altered the assemblage of floral visitors, according to a variety of approaches, including a structural equation modelling approach (model with an extended trophic cascade was supported over a model without, AICc weight = 0.984). Our study provides support for extended trophic cascades affecting floral visitors, suggesting that trophic cascades can have impacts throughout entire communities.
Funding for mental health services in England faces many challenges, including operating under financial constraints where it is not easy to demonstrate the link between activity and funding. Mental health services need to operate alongside and collaborate with acute physical hospital services, where there is a well-established system for paying for activity. The funding landscape is shifting at a rapid pace and we outline the distinctions between the three main options – block contracts, episodic payment and capitation. Classification of treatment episodes via clustering presents an opportunity to demonstrate activity and reward it within these payment approaches. We discuss the results of our research into how well the clustering system is performing against a number of fundamental criteria. We find that, according to these criteria, clusters are falling short of providing a sound basis for measuring and financing services. Nevertheless, we argue that clustering is the best available option and is essential for a more transparent funding approach for mental healthcare to demonstrate its claim on resources, and that clusters should therefore be a starting point for evolving a better funding system.
• Understand the different payment models currently being used and proposed in mental health services in England
• Understand the role of clustering in measuring mental health activity and providing a basis for funding
• Understand how a robust model of clustering can benefit the provision of mental health services
A novel, alloy-agnostic, nanofunctionalization process has been utilized to produce metal matrix composites (MMCs) via additive manufacturing, providing new geometric freedom for MMC design. MMCs were produced with the addition of tungsten carbide nanoparticles to commercially available AlSi10Mg alloy powder. Tungsten carbide was chosen due to the potential for coherent crystallographic phases that were identified utilizing a lattice-matching approach to promote wetting and increase dislocation interactions. Structures were produced with evenly distributed strengthening phases leading to tensile strengths >385 MPa and a 50% decrease in wear rate over the commercially available AlSi10Mg alloy at only 1 vol% loading of tungsten carbide.
This contribution deals with array elements for K/Ka-band satellite communication terminals. It proposes an end-fire design realized in substrate integrated waveguide technology and featuring dual-band functionality, and dual circular polarization. The latter is achieved by means of a dual-band orthomode transducer. An extended hemispherical dielectric lens ensures good matching and radiation properties. The feed structure is composed of a multilayer printed circuit board and tapered superstrates. The design procedure of the components is explained in detail and three different variants of the antenna are compared. The measured scattering and far-field parameters validate the concept.
A selection of hybrid frequency- and time-domain approaches is evaluated with respect to their suitability for predicting the multi-tone behavior of a reference Ku-band helix traveling-wave tube. For this, a frequency-domain code is extended by a selection of frequency-dependent and frequency-independent envelope models and compared to a number of simulated and measured responses to two-tone signal excitation with varying frequency spacing. The selected envelope methods are investigated both in the hybrid approach and based on measured TWT characteristics. Output levels and classical multi-tone metrics, such as intermodulation products and phase transfer factors, are considered. By reducing a modulation scenario to a number of significant sequences, a comparison to full physics-based frequency-domain simulation is presented to show the potential of the proposed approach.
In this report, the authors prepared an opinion poll regarding the most important people, events, technologies, concepts, discoveries, and therapies in paediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery. The results were presented in continuous slide show format at the 2017 Seventh World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS 2017), Barcelona, Spain. The presentation (under international copyright) is made available herein for educational purposes.
Make things as simple as possible, but not simpler (Albert Einstein)
From 1994 to 2008, spectrum was sold almost exclusively using the Simultaneous Multiple Round Auction (SMRA). The SMRA is based on simple rules, which make it easy to explain and implement, yet they create considerable strategic complexity. Since items have to be won one-by-one, bidders who compete aggressively for combinations of items risk paying too much if they ultimately win an inferior subset. This exposure risk suppresses bidding with adverse consequences for the auction's efficiency and revenue.
Since 2008, regulators worldwide have adopted the Combinatorial Clock Auction (CCA) to avoid exposure problems. The CCA is based on very complex rules, but the premise was that bidding would be “straightforward,” i.e. bids would truthfully reflect valuations. Unfortunately, it is now well known that the CCA admits many other behaviors, including demand reduction, demand expansion, and predatory bidding (see Chapters 15–17). In particular, the CCA's supplementary stage may provide bidders with an opportunity to raise rivals’ costs, which has led to some hard-to-defend outcomes.
In light of recent experiences with the CCA, regulators should be reassured about the advantages of combinatorial formats when synergies for adjacent geographic regions or contiguous blocks of spectrum are important. Market designers should beware of Einstein's advice and not regress to offering solutions that are too simplistic. Instead, they should take stock of two decades of field experience to pinpoint features essential to participating bidders and regulators. After all, spectrum auction design will only be truly successful if we are able to model their preferences correctly.
The standard paradigm in mechanism design assumes bidders with independent and private valuations, quasi-linear utility functions, and unlimited budgets, and regulators who aim to maximize efficiency or revenue of an auction in isolation, i.e. ignoring its effect on the downstream market. While these assumptions result in models that are elegant, they are not necessarily relevant. In what follows, we discuss objectives of regulators and bidders in spectrum auctions and how they differ from these “textbook” assumptions. These differences have an impact on the choice of the auction format. Furthermore, we discuss challenges for future auction designs and requirements for new models.