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Interlocutors tend to refer to objects using the same names as each other. We investigated whether native and non-native interlocutors’ tendency to do so is influenced by speakers’ nativeness and by their beliefs about an interlocutor's nativeness. A native or non-native participant and a native or non-native confederate directed each other around a map to deliver objects to locations. We manipulated whether confederates referred to objects using a favored or disfavored name, while controlling for confederates’ language behavior. We found evidence of audience design for native and non-native addressees: participants were more likely to use a disfavored name after a non-native confederate used that name than after a native confederate used that name; this tendency did not differ between native and non-native participants. Results suggest that both native and non-native speakers can adapt to the language of non-native partners through non-automatic, goal-directed mechanisms of alignment during cognitively demanding communicative tasks.
The chapter concludes the book bu summarising the main points and indicating future directions and possible applications. We suggest applications such as disordered dialogue (e.g., involving young children or people with autism) and remote conferencing facilities.
The chapter discusses how motor control theory can be applied to language production in dialogue. We develop the theory starting with control of individual speech production using self-monitoring supported by forward speech models. We then show how the production system supports interpretation of a partner's speech through simulation, as in other forms of action. Finally we show how the combination of forward modelling for comprehension and production supports distributed control of dialogue.
Linguistic interaction between two people is the fundamental form of communication, yet almost all research in language use focuses on isolated speakers and listeners. In this innovative work, Garrod and Pickering extend the scope of psycholinguistics beyond individuals by introducing communication as a social activity. Drawing on psychological, linguistic, philosophical and sociological research, they expand their theory that alignment across individuals is the basis of communication, through the model of a 'shared workspace account'. In this workspace, interlocutors are actors who jointly manipulate and control the interaction and develop similar representations of both language and social context, in order to achieve communicative success. The book also explores dialogue within groups, technologies, as well as the role of culture more generally. Providing a new understanding of cognitive representation, this trailblazing work will be highly influential in the fields of linguistics, psychology and cognitive linguistics.
The chapter presents the theory of interactive alignment and primarily focuses on the alignment of linguistic representations underlying the utterances that each speaker contributes to the dialogue. Such representations enable interlocutors to formulate phrases, words, or gestures that move the dialogue forward. We also consider two dimensions of alignment (focal vs. global, and linguistic vs. dialogue model) and how alignment relates to reference and the role of dialogue routines in support of alignment.
The chapter shows how interlocutors achieve alignment of dialogue models -- that is, both situation models and dialogue game models. Such alignment is the basis of successful dialogue. We discuss the importance of co-reference for alignment of situation models. We then consider the role of meta-representation of aiignment in dialogue and how this controls what people choose to say next. We consider the relationship between focal alignment of dialogue models and what is in the shared workspace. Finally, we discuss the relationship between alignment and common ground.
The chapter discusses efficient use of the limited shared workspace and how interlocutors work together to achieve it. We introduce the notion of commentary (both positive and negative) that reflects interlocutors' confidence in focal alignment. We show how positive commentary leads directly to succinct expressions and negative commentary leads to fuller expressions. As a result, positive and negative commentary promote alignment while minimizing collaborative effort.
The chapter discusses cooperative joint activities such as a man and woman jointly constructing a piece of flat-pack furniture. It describes the shared workspace framework for how pairs of individuals can jointly execute such activities. The framework assumes a limited capacity workspace reflecting what the actors jointly attend to at any moment. For cooperative joint activities in general the workspace contains meaningful entities and behaviours that offer joint affordances to the interactants.The combination of the individuals and the shared workspace captures non-monadic aspects of cognition such as alignment and synchrony.
The chapter introduces the shared workspace framework for dialogue. We show how the framework used to explain cooperative joint activities in general can be applied to dialogue. In dialogue, the framework is similar to that for other cooperative joint activities except that the meaningful entities in the shared workspace are signs as well as associated objects.