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To determine undernutrition prevalence in 0–59-month-old children and its determinants during the period 2000–2015 in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ecological study of time series prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa assessed from 2000 to 2015.
Underweight and stunting prevalence from the World Bank database (2000–2015) were analysed. Mixed models were used to estimate prevalence of underweight and stunting. Country-specific undernutrition prevalence variation was estimated and region comparisons were performed. A meta-regression model considering health and socio-economic characteristics at country level was used to explore and estimate the contribution of different undernutrition determinants.
Countries of sub-Saharan Africa.
During 2000–2015, underweight prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa was heterogeneous, ranging between 7 and 40 %. On the other hand, stunting prevalence ranged between 20 and 60 %. In general, higher rates of underweight and stunting were estimated in Niger (40 %) and Burundi (58 %), respectively; while lowest rates of underweight and stunting were estimated in Swaziland (7 %) and Gabon (21 %). About 1 % undernutrition prevalence reduction per year was estimated across sub-Saharan Africa, which was not statistically significant for all countries. Health and socio-economic determinants were identified as main determinants of underweight and stunting prevalence variability in sub-Saharan Africa.
Undernutrition represents a major public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa and its prevalence reduction during the period 2000–2015 was inconsistent. Improving water accessibility and number of medical doctors along with reducing HIV prevalence and poverty could significantly reduce undernutrition prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa
To develop an FFQ for estimating culture-specific maize intake that can distinguish between home-grown and commercial maize. Home-grown maize is more likely to be contaminated with fumonisins, mycotoxins that are associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer.
An existing FFQ developed for use in urban Xhosa populations was used as the initial framework for the maize-specific FFQ (M-FFQ). The existing questionnaire contained 126 food items divided into ten food groups (bread, cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy, snacks, condiments, beverages and fat). The M-FFQ was developed based on additional data obtained from a literature search, 24 h recalls (n 159), in-depth interviews (n 4), focus group discussions (n 56) and expert consultation. Food items available in local shops (n 3) were compared with information obtained from focus group discussions.
Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the Eastern Cape Province, known to have a high incidence of oesophageal cancer, were randomly selected.
Women aged 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate.
The final M-FFQ comprised twenty-one maize-based food items, including traditional Xhosa dishes and beverages. The questionnaire focused on maize-specific dishes and distinguished between home-grown maize and commercial maize consumption.
A culturally specific dietary assessment method was designed to determine maize consumption and therefore fumonisin exposure. The questionnaire will be tested against 24 h recalls and other methods to determine its validity, after which it will be used in various epidemiological studies to determine fumonisin exposure.
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