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To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of consumption of dairy products and physical activity (PA) with bone mineral density (BMD).
Cohort study with children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort.
Pelotas, a medium-sized Brazilian city.
The study started in 2004 and mothers/children were interviewed/measured periodically from birth to age 6 years. PA was measured by maternal proxy at 4 and 6 years and by accelerometry at 6 years. Consumption of dairy products was measured using 24 h food recall (at 4 years) and FFQ (at 6 years). Total-body and lumbar-spine BMD (g/cm2) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
At 6 years, BMD was measured in 3444 children and 2636 children provided data on objectively measured PA by accelerometry. Consumption of dairy products at 4 years was associated with higher lumbar-spine BMD at 6 years in boys, while current consumption was positively associated with BMD in both sexes (P < 0·001). PA assessed by maternal report at 4 and 6 years of age was associated with higher BMD at 6 years in boys. PA assessed by accelerometry was positively related to total-body and lumbar-spine BMD in boys and lumbar-spine BMD in girls. We did not find evidence for an interaction between PA and consumption of dairy products on BMD.
We observed positive and independent longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between consumption of dairy products and PA with BMD in the total body and at the lumbar spine in young children.
To investigate the predictors of change in physical activity (PA) from early to mid adolescence in a cohort of adolescents.
Prospective, population-based birth cohort study. PA level was evaluated by means of questionnaire, and was analysed in continuous form (min/week) and as a trajectory (inactive–inactive, inactive–active, active–inactive, active–active) based on the cut-off point of 300 min/week.
Pelotas, a city of 340 000 inhabitants in southern Brazil.
Adolescents (n 4120) followed from 11 to 15 years of age.
Maternal PA change and more exposure to outdoors were directly associated with a positive change in PA level (min/week) for both genders. Higher maturation status (among boys) and later menarche were also associated with positive PA change in min/week. Predictors to remain inactive were: maternal PA change (inverse association), more exposure to outdoors, higher socio-economic level, fear of living in the neighbourhood and non-overweight girls. Predictors to become inactive were higher socio-economic level among boys and increase in screen time among girls.
The study demonstrates that social, family, biological, behavioural and environmental factors exert an important role in the PA change among youngsters as they move into adolescence. These findings may be relevant to the design of policies and intervention programmes aimed at promoting PA in teenagers.
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