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The lung is the most vascularized organ in the body due to its primary function to perform exchange of respiratory gases for the entire body. This chapter reviews the structure, developmental origins, timing, and patterning of the arterial, capillary, venous, and lymphatic systems in the lung as well as the main pulmonary arteries and veins that connect the heart to the lung. Both the pre- and postnatal stages (phases) of pulmonary vascular morphogenesis are covered. The relative importance of vasculogenesis versus angiogenesis in the initial formation of pulmonary vessels is discussed as well as other potential mechanisms. Current knowledge of cellular and molecular pathways and mechanisms that orchestrate and regulate vascular morphogenesis are discussed, along with the relative contributions of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts. The coordinate regulation of the pulmonary vascular system with airway development is critical and is also reviewed. Responses of the pulmonary circulation to injury and the potential for regression and regeneration of the lung vasculature as well as unanswered questions and future directions in pulmonary vascular development are also presented.