To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Multiaxial classification system development (organising important and relevant clinical factors under multiple headings or ‘axes’) has a long history stretching back to the 1940s. The World Health Organization supported the development of a multiaxial system of classification for children from the 1960s and in the 1990s produced a comprehensive multiaxial system which could be used with ICD-10. Using the multiaxial approach provides for an atheoretical framework that can integrate factors from within the child and the environmental influences on the child. This article presents a variety of ways in which the ICD-10 multiaxial framework can be extended from its classic usage to provide clinicians with valuable tools to assist in a biopsychosocial clinical assessment. Using the multiaxial system in an extended format allows a more comprehensive diagnosis and planning of treatments and is helpful in the training and teaching of juniors. It is also useful in evaluating responses to medication when it is combined with a chronological analysis and can provide other useful ways of integrating information relevant to understanding clinical cases.
The benefits of fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) have been recognized for over a decade, yet access to FLP remains limited in many settings. This means at a population level, the potential benefits of FLP for TTTS are far from being fully realized. In part, this is because there are many centers where the case volume is relatively low. This creates an inevitable tension; on one hand, wanting FLP to be readily accessible to all women who may need it, yet on the other, needing to ensure that a high degree of procedural competence is maintained. Some of the solutions to these apparently competing priorities may be found in novel training solutions to achieve, and maintain, procedural proficiency, and with the increased utilization of ‘competence based’ assessment and credentialing frameworks. We suggest an under-utilized approach is the development of collaborative surgical services, where pooling of personnel and resources can improve timely access to surgery, improve standardized assessment and management of TTTS, minimize the impact of the surgical learning curve, and facilitate audit, education, and research. When deciding which centers should offer laser for TTTS and how we decide, we propose some solutions from a collaborative model.