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Opening up the warm body of American Horror – through literature, film, TV, music, video games, and a host of other mediums – this book gathers the leading scholars in the field to dissect the gruesome histories and shocking forms of American life. Through a series of accessible and informed essays, moving from the seventeenth century to the present day, The Cambridge Companion to American Horror explores one of the liveliest and most progressive areas of contemporary culture. From slavery to censorship, from occult forces to monstrous beings, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in America's most terrifying cultural expressions.
Clinical high-risk states for psychosis (CHR) are associated with functional impairments and depressive disorders. A previous PRONIA study predicted social functioning in CHR and recent-onset depression (ROD) based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and clinical data. However, the combination of these domains did not lead to accurate role functioning prediction, calling for the investigation of additional risk dimensions. Role functioning may be more strongly associated with environmental adverse events than social functioning.
We aimed to predict role functioning in CHR, ROD and transdiagnostically, by adding environmental adverse events-related variables to clinical and sMRI data domains within the PRONIA sample.
Baseline clinical, environmental and sMRI data collected in 92 CHR and 95 ROD samples were trained to predict lower versus higher follow-up role functioning, using support vector classification and mixed k-fold/leave-site-out cross-validation. We built separate predictions for each domain, created multimodal predictions and validated them in independent cohorts (74 CHR, 66 ROD).
Models combining clinical and environmental data predicted role outcome in discovery and replication samples of CHR (balanced accuracies: 65.4% and 67.7%, respectively), ROD (balanced accuracies: 58.9% and 62.5%, respectively), and transdiagnostically (balanced accuracies: 62.4% and 68.2%, respectively). The most reliable environmental features for role outcome prediction were adult environmental adjustment, childhood trauma in CHR and childhood environmental adjustment in ROD.
Findings support the hypothesis that environmental variables inform role outcome prediction, highlight the existence of both transdiagnostic and syndrome-specific predictive environmental adverse events, and emphasise the importance of implementing real-world models by measuring multiple risk dimensions.
To improve maternal health outcomes, increased diversity is needed among pregnant people in research studies and community surveillance. To expand the pool, we sought to develop a network encompassing academic and community obstetrics clinics. Typical challenges in developing a network include site identification, contracting, onboarding sites, staff engagement, participant recruitment, funding, and institutional review board approvals. While not insurmountable, these challenges became magnified as we built a research network during a global pandemic. Our objective is to describe the framework utilized to resolve pandemic-related issues.
We developed a framework for site-specific adaptation of the generalized study protocol. Twice monthly video meetings were held between the lead academic sites to identify local challenges and to generate ideas for solutions. We identified site and participant recruitment challenges and then implemented solutions tailored to the local workflow. These solutions included the use of an electronic consent and videoconferences with local clinic leadership and staff. The processes for network development and maintenance changed to address issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, aspects of the sample processing/storage and data collection elements were held constant between sites.
Adapting our consenting approach enabled maintaining study enrollment during the pandemic. The pandemic amplified issues related to contracting, onboarding, and IRB approval. Maintaining continuity in sample management and clinical data collection allowed for pooling of information between sites.
Adaptability is key to maintaining network sites. Rapidly changing guidelines for beginning and continuing research during the pandemic required frequent intra- and inter-institutional communication to navigate.
Academic discovery in biomedicine is a growing enterprise with tens of billions of dollars in research funding available to universities and hospitals. Protecting and optimizing the resultant intellectual property is required in order for the discoveries to have an impact on society. To achieve that, institutions must create a multidisciplinary, collaborative system of review and support, and utilize connections to industry partners. In this study, we outline the efforts of Case Western Reserve University, coordinated through its Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative (CTSC), to promote entrepreneurial culture, and achieve goals of product development and startup formation for biomedical and population health discoveries arising from the academic ecosystem in Cleveland. The CTSC Office of Translation and Innovation, with the university’s Technology Transfer Office (TTO), helps identify and derisk promising IP while building interdisciplinary project teams to optimize the assets through key preclinical derisking steps. The benefits of coordinating funding across multiple programs, assuring dedicated project management to oversee optimizing the IP, and ensuring training to help improve proposals and encourage an entrepreneurial culture, are discussed in the context of a case study of therapeutic assets, the Council to Advance Human Health. This case study highlights best practices in academic innovation.
The COVID-19 global pandemic required the rapid development of vaccines with a quick start up of phase 1–3 studies with large enrollment targets. The University of California San Diego was identified as a site for the phase 3 trial of the mRNA-1273-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. There were many challenges with scaling up a large-scale clinical trial in such a short time. This report describes the processes and procedures that were implemented to successfully complete the enrollment target in under 10 weeks. This required the team to identify existing tools that could rapidly be accessed to develop a database, scheduling system, effective communication, document management, staff time tracking/efficiency, subject scheduling/tracking, project management, and accrual/study performance. The outcome of these efforts resulted in rapid enrollment and study completion in a short time. The lessons learned from this experience can be used by other clinical trial sites faced with similar challenges.
COVID-19 has caused the sudden closure of care homes to the outside world, to stem the virus from infecting some of the most vulnerable groups of people – older adults residing in care homes. With very little knowledge to date, we aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 on care provision and visits in care homes from staff and family members’ perspectives.
Care home staff and family carers of people living with dementia (PLWD) across the UK were recruited via convenience sampling and participated via telephone or Zoom. Participants took part in a semi-structured remote interview. Baseline data were collected between October and November 2020, and follow-up interviews were collected throughout March 2021. Anonymised transcripts were analysed separately by two research team members using thematic analysis, with codes discussed and themes generated jointly, supported by research team input.
42 participants (26 family carers and 16 care home staff) took part in the baseline interviews, and 20 purposefully sampled participants (11 family carers and 9 care home staff) were followed up. Prior to vaccination roll out in the UK, at baseline, family carers expressed concern about a lack of clear guidance throughout the pandemic, with care homes delivering care differently and disparities noted in the levels and types of visiting allowed for family members. Lack of communication between care homes and family members, but also government and care homes, led to family carers feeling excluded and concerned about the well-being of their relative. Data on follow-up interviews are still being analysed.
This is the first empirical evidence to show how the pandemic has caused severe difficulties in providing adequate care for care home residents, with not only residents, but also care home staff and family carers being negatively affected. Follow-up data will shed light onto the impact of vaccination and eased visitation rights put in place since March 2021 on care delivery and connections between family carers and residents.
The papers in this forum offer an interdisciplinary assessment of the state of the field of Anglican Studies and perspectives on future trajectories. The first three papers, on liturgy, history, and world Anglicanism, offer an assessment of the respective state of these areas of Anglican Studies. The second set, on theology, sociology of religion, and biblical studies, stake out positions on how these disciplines inform the work of Anglican Studies. A concluding essay offers a synthesis of these papers, focusing on the themes of local contexts for Anglicanism, a further complexification of decolonizing processes in Anglicanism, and the critical role of conversation in Anglican Studies regarding disciplines, languages, and power dynamics.
Statistical learning (SL) approaches to reading maintain that proficient reading requires assimilation of rich statistical regularities in the writing system. Reading skills in developing first-language readers are predicted by individual differences in sensitivity to regularities in mappings from orthography to phonology (O-P) and semantics (O-S), where good readers rely more on O-P consistency, and less on O-S associations. However, how these regularities are leveraged by second-language (L2) learners remains an open question. We utilize an individual-differences approach, measuring L2 English learners’ sensitivity to O-P, O-S, and frequency during word-naming, across two years of immersion. We show that reliance on O-P is leveraged by better readers, while reliance on O-S is slower to develop, characterizing less proficient readers. All factors explain substantial individual variance in L2 reading skills. These findings show how SL plays a key role in L2 reading development through its role in assimilating sublexical regularities between print and speech.
To assess the mental health of pregnant women, with reference to anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Ireland during the third wave of the pandemic between February and March 2021. Psychiatric, social and obstetric information was collected from pregnant women in a Dublin maternity hospital, alongside self-reported measures of mental health status.
Of 392 women responding, 23.7% had anxiety, scoring >9 for GAD-7 (7-item generalised anxiety disorder), 20.4% had depression, scoring >9 for PHQ-9 (9-item depression screening tool: Patient health questionnaire) and 10.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), scoring >13 for Yale–Brown obsessive-compulsive scale symptom checklist (Y-BOCS). Amongst self-reported OCD symptoms, there was a preponderance for obsessions rather than compulsions. Of 392 women, 36.2% described their mental health as worse during the pandemic, most frequently describing symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbance. When analysed against test scores, self-reported worsening of mental health was significantly associated with higher scores on the GAD-7, PHQ-9 and Y-BOCS scales. The three scores were positively interrelated. Poor mental health scores were associated with self-reported strain in relationship with the baby’s father, and current or previous history of mental illness.
This study found high levels of depression, anxiety and OC symptoms amongst pregnant women during COVID-19. This highlights the vulnerability of this group to mental illness and the importance of enhanced screening and support during pandemics.
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended for all patients with psychosis, but is offered to only a minority. This is attributable, in part, to the resource-intensive nature of CBT for psychosis. Responses have included the development of CBT for psychosis in brief and targeted formats, and its delivery by briefly trained therapists. This study explored a combination of these responses by investigating a brief, CBT-informed intervention targeted at distressing voices (the GiVE intervention) administered by a briefly trained workforce of assistant psychologists.
To explore the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the GiVE intervention when delivered by assistant psychologists to patients with psychosis.
This was a three-arm, feasibility, randomised controlled trial comparing the GiVE intervention, a supportive counselling intervention and treatment as usual, recruiting across two sites, with 1:1:1 allocation and blind post-treatment and follow-up assessments.
Feasibility outcomes were favourable with regard to the recruitment and retention of participants and the adherence of assistant psychologists to therapy and supervision protocols. For the candidate primary outcomes, estimated effects were in favour of GiVE compared with supportive counselling and treatment as usual at post-treatment. At follow-up, estimated effects were in favour of supportive counselling compared with GiVE and treatment as usual, and GiVE compared with treatment as usual.
A definitive trial of the GiVE intervention, delivered by assistant psychologists, is feasible. Adaptations to the GiVE intervention and the design of any future trials may be necessary.
A field study was conducted in Mississippi to determine the effect of reduced dicamba rates on sweetpotato crop tolerance and storage root yield, simulating off-target movement or sprayer tank contamination. Treatments included a nontreated control and four rates of dicamba [70 g ae ha−1 (1/8×), 35 g ae ha−1 (1/16×), 8.65 g ae ha−1 (1/64×), and 1.09 g ae ha−1 (1/512×)] applied either 3 d before transplanting (DBP) or 1, 3, 5, or 7 wk after transplanting (WAP). An additional treatment consisted of 560 g ae ha−1 (1×) dicamba applied 3 DBP. Crop injury ratings were taken 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after treatment (WAT). Across application timings, predicted sweetpotato plant injury 1, 2, 3, and 4 WAT increased from 3T to 22%, 3% to 32%, 2% to 58%, and 1% to 64% as dicamba rate increased from 0 to 70 g ha−1 (1/8×), respectively. As dicamba rate increased from 1/512× to 1/8×, predicted No. 1 yield decreased from 127% to 55%, 103% to 69%, 124% to 31%, and 124% to 41% of the nontreated control for applications made 1, 3, 5, and 7 WAP, respectively. Similarly, as dicamba rate increased from 1/512× to 1/8×, predicted marketable yield decreased from 123% to 57%, 107% to 77%, 121% to 44%, and 110% to 53% of the nontreated control for applications made 1, 3, 5, and 7 WAP, respectively. Dicamba residue (5.3 to 14.3 parts per billion) was detected in roots treated with 1/16× or 1/8× dicamba applied 5 or 7 WAP and 1/64× dicamba applied 7 WAP with the highest residue detected in roots harvested from sweetpotato plants treated at 7 WAP. Collectively, care should be taken to avoid sweetpotato exposure to dicamba especially at 1/8× and 1/16× rates during the growing season.
Background: Reports of hospitals overwhelmed by COVID-19 patients created severe shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE). In this large academic medical system, we used a systematic team approach to proactively maintain an adequate PPE supply. The team consisted of staff from multiple departments including infection prevention, environmental health and safety, operational efficiency, and supply chain. The healthcare system solicited donations of PPE, and our team was tasked with developing a sustainable method to provide healthcare workers with safe and effective N-95 respirators. Respirators are normally fitted to our 6,000+ healthcare workers through a fit-testing process using 4 models of N-95s. We received >60 models, many in small quantities, posing a new level of complexity that prevented use of our typical fit-testing method. Methods: Donated respirators were manually verified on the CDC/NIOSH website to validate approval or approved alternative. A categorization system was developed, and respirators were sorted based on quality, style, and condition. User seal checks replaced qualitative fit testing due to the uncertain and quickly changing respirator supply. Staff were educated about the importance of performing a seal check to evaluate respirator fit and were provided instructions for what to do if they failed a seal check. We performed limited quantitative fit testing on a small group previously fit tested to 1 of the 4 models of N-95s normally stocked to identify the most effective alternative respirators to serve as substitute N-95s. Results: We were able to provide staff with new N-95s and delay the release of reprocessed N-95s. Overall, 18 models of respirators were tested on staff for filtration effectiveness and fit. We deemed 61% masks to be of last resort, and these were not released. We determined that 39% were acceptable as an alternative for at least 1 of our usual respirator models. However, only 3 models (17%) available in small quantities fit wearers whose size was in shortest supply. This scarcity led to the evaluation and purchase of a new respirator prototype for small N-95 wearers, which was an important success of our team’s work and for staff safety. Conclusions: Collaboration between teams from a variety of backgrounds, using both qualitative and quantitative data, resulted in a sustainable method for receiving, sorting, and evaluating donated N-95 respirators, ensuring the delivery of a steady supply of effective N-95 respirators to our staff. This quality-driven approach was an efficient and effective strategy to maintain our N-95 respirator supply during a pandemic driven global shortage.
To assess the contribution of different food groups to total salt purchases and to evaluate the estimated reduction in salt purchases if mandatory maximum salt limits in South African legislation were being complied with.
This study conducted a cross-sectional analysis of purchasing data from Discovery Vitality members. Data were linked to the South African FoodSwitch database to determine the salt content of each food product purchased. Food category and total annual salt purchases were determined by summing salt content (kg) per each unit purchased across a whole year. Reductions in annual salt purchases were estimated by applying legislated maximum limits to product salt content.
The study utilised purchasing data from 344 161 households, members of Discovery Vitality, collected for a whole year between January and December 2018.
Vitality members purchased R12·8 billion worth of food products in 2018, representing 9562 products from which 264 583 kg of salt was purchased. The main contributors to salt purchases were bread and bakery products (23·3 %); meat and meat products (19 %); dairy (12·2 %); sauces, dressings, spreads and dips (11·8 %); and convenience foods (8·7 %). The projected total quantity of salt that would be purchased after implementation of the salt legislation was 250 346 kg, a reduction of 5·4 % from 2018 levels.
A projected reduction in salt purchases of 5·4 % from 2018 levels suggests that meeting the mandatory maximum salt limits in South Africa will make a meaningful contribution to reducing salt purchases.
This article develops a theoretical framework for the relationship between the architectural magazine and architecture, understood as a profession, a discipline, and a culture. By developing David Abrahamson’s idea of ‘magazine exceptionalism’ from the field of magazines studies, it offers a definition of what constitutes an architectural magazine, arguing that to be architectural, a magazine must be a site of architectural production, as either a validator in the field of architecture or as an architectural project in its own right.
The masked translation priming effect was examined in Chinese–English bilinguals using lexical decision and semantic categorization tasks in an effort to understand why the two tasks seem to produce different patterns of results. A machine-learning approach was used to assess the participant-based factors that contribute to the sizes of translation priming effects in these tasks. As expected, the participant-based factors that predicted translation priming effects did vary across tasks. Priming effects in lexical decision were associated with higher self-rated listening, reading, and writing abilities in English. Priming effects in semantic categorization were associated with more frequent use of English in daily life, spoken English proficiency, and self-rated listening proficiency in English. These results are discussed within the framework of Multilink, the logic of which is then expanded in an attempt to account for these task differences.
Applying normative and practice-based approaches, this chapter clarifies the evolving application of human rights to mental health through the normative expansion of the right to health and the rights of persons with disabilities and the emerging psychosocial approaches to mental health services and policy. It examines the challenges mental disability poses for the full enjoyment of human rights, and the responses of the human rights framework, as well as the integration of a normative and practice-based approach to human rights and mental health. Comparing the rights defined in the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and for the Improvement of Mental Health Care (MI Principles) and those in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), it demonstrates that the enumeration of rights defined in these two essential documents on mental health and human rights underscores that the mental health–specific provisions of the MI Principles add to the normative content of the corresponding articles of the CRPD and the latter provide legally binding force to the corresponding nonbinding pronouncements of the MI Principles. The conclusion proposes some guidelines for mental health practice and the application of human rights norms to mental health.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is likely to exacerbate the symptoms of poor mental health in family caregivers.
To investigate whether rates of depressive symptomatology increased in caregivers during COVID-19 and whether the unintended consequences of health protective measures, i.e., social isolation, exacerbated this risk. Another aim was to see if caregivers accessed any online/phone psychological support during COVID.
Data (1349 caregivers; 6178 non-caregivers) was extracted from Understanding Society, a UK population-level data-set. The General Health Questionnaire cut-off scores identified those who are likely to have depression.
After adjustment for confounding caregivers had a higher risk of having depressive symptoms compared with non-caregivers, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22 (95% CI 1.05–1.40, P = 0.008) evidenced by higher levels of depression pre-COVID-19 (16.7% caregivers v. 12.1% non-caregivers) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (21.6% caregivers v. 17.9% non-caregivers), respectively. Further, higher levels of loneliness increased the risk of depression symptoms almost four-fold in caregivers, OR = 3.85 (95% 95% CI 3.08–4.85, P < 0.001), whereas accessing therapy attenuated the risk of depression (43%). A total of 60% of caregivers with depression symptoms reported not accessing any therapeutic support (for example online or face to face) during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 has had a negative impact on family caregivers’ mental health with loneliness a significant contributor to depressive symptomatology. However, despite these detriments in mental health, the majority of caregivers do not access any online or phone psychiatric support. Finally, psychiatric services and healthcare professionals should aim to focus on reducing feelings of loneliness to support at-risk caregivers.