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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
We examined interventions to optimize piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 hospitals. Interventions for rotating house staff did not affect use. We could target empiric therapy in only 35% of cases. Because prescribing practices seemed to be institution specific, interventions should address attitudes of local prescribers. Interventions should target empiric therapy and ordering of appropriate cultures.
The critical years from the turn of the century to the eve of the First World War were a time of uncertainty and crisis for Russia's old political, social and cultural order. The year 1904 saw the start of the Russo-Japanese war, a disastrous conflict sparked by Russia's expansion into China and Korea in the face of Japan's own regional desires, further fuelled by Russian over confidence and racist contempt for the Japanese. Marxists believed they possessed a more scientific and rationalistic understanding of society and history. Marxists tended to take an essentialist view of the proletariat: this was the class destined by the logic of history to emancipate humanity from injustice and oppression. The sense of crisis and opportunity that marked so much of the Russian fin de siècle was evident in the experience of being a non-Russian subject of Russian empire, as well as in state policy towards the nationalities problem.
We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of prescribers concerning piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 Emory University-affiliated hospitals. Discussions during focus groups indicated that the participants' perceived knowledge of clinical criteria for appropriate piperacillin-tazobactam use was inadequate. Retrospective review of medical records identified inappropriate practices. These findings have influenced ongoing interventions aimed at optimizing piperacillin-tazobactam use.
We construct the freest idempotent-pure expansion of an inverse semigroup, generalizing an expansion of Margolis and Meakin for the group case. We also generalize the Birget-Rhodes prefix expansion to inverse semigroups with an application to partial actions of inverse semigroups. In the process of generalizing the latter expansion, we are led to a new class of idempotent-pure homomorphisms which we term F-morphisms. These play the same role in the theory of idempotent-pure homomorphisms that F-inverse monoids play in the theory of E-unitary inverse semigroups.