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Suicide is the second leading cause of death in all youth and among adults with bipolar disorder (BD). The risk of suicide in BD is among the highest of all psychiatric conditions. Self-harm, including suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, is a leading risk factor for suicide. Neuroimaging studies suggest reward circuits are implicated in both BD and self-harm; however, studies have yet to examine self-harm related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) phenotypes within adolescent BD.
Resting-state fMRI data were analyzed for 141 adolescents, ages 13–20 years, including 38 with BD and lifetime self-harm (BDSH+), 33 with BD and no self-harm (BDSH−), and 70 healthy controls (HC). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala were examined as regions of interest in seed-to-voxel analyses. A general linear model was used to explore the bivariate correlations for each seed.
BDSH− had increased positive rsFC between the left amygdala and left lateral occipital cortex, and between the right dlPFC and right frontal pole, and increased negative rsFC between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus compared to BDSH+ and HC. BDSH+ had increased positive rsFC of the right OFC with the precuneus and left paracingulate gyrus compared to BDSH− and HC.
This study provides preliminary evidence of altered reward-related rsFC in relation to self-harm in adolescents with BD. Between-group differences conveyed a combination of putative risk and resilience connectivity patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate changes in rsFC in response to treatment and related changes in self-harm.
The leaving of a will prior to death by suicide is a relatively
To determine the frequency and details of will content in suicide
Coroner records for 1565 deaths by suicide in Toronto (2003–2009) were
reviewed for (a) will content and (b) the presence of depression,
psychotic illness, dementia and intoxication prior to death.
In total, 59 (20.7%) of 285 available suicide notes were found to have
will content. Of those who left a will, 43 (72.9%) were reported to have
a major mood or psychotic disorder, but none had dementia. Fifteen of 19
toxicology samples showed alcohol, sedative hypnotic/benzodiazepine,
opioid and/or recreational drugs were present.
A substantial minority of suicide notes may also include testamentary
intent. The observed high rate of mental illness and substance use around
the time of death has important clinical implications for understanding
the mindset of people who die by suicide and hence also legal
implications regarding testamentary capacity.
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