To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban, a right populist, espouses what he calls “illiberal democracy”. Orban has weakened media independence, clamped down on the judiciary, intimidated non-government organizations (NGOs) and shown open preference for ethnic Hungarians while targetting minority groups and migrants. He is creating a Hungarian version of the regimes of Vladimir Putin of Russia and Recep Tayyip Erdog?an of Turkey. Orban has rejected criticism from the European Union that he has weakened civil liberties and eliminated most constitutional checks on his executive authority, claiming he is only acting in the interests of his people who gave his party a super-majority in the legislature.
This chapter attempts to apply the concept of “illiberal democracy” to the Philippines under the presidency of Rodrigo R. Duterte. If illiberal democracy can be understood as having a legitimately elected leader who has not (yet) formally curbed freedom of speech or limited powers of branches of government—yet whose rule is marked by systematic violations of civil liberties—then this term arguably applies to the Duterte administration in the Philippines more so than Orban's rule in Hungary. The latter regime has become a “Potemkin democracy” since the 2014 (and the recent 2018) elections in which the ruling party enjoyed unfair advantages, leaving it with only a “democratic facade” in what is in fact “quasi ‘one-party rule’ ”. With his super-majority in parliament, Orban had laws passed that target the press, independent government agencies, NGOs, and even the prestigious Central European University (CEU)—the most recent subject of Orban's ire threatened with closure through socalled “lex CEU” legislation. By contrast, although Duterte has cowed the courts, won control of Congress, and had his chief opponent Leila de Lima jailed on dubious charges—while putting another leading critic, Vice President Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo under significant pressure—he has not manipulated elections. upheld most democratic rules. The press is not formally censored (although several news outlets have been subject to presidential intimidation) and Congress and the courts have not been subject to legal restrictions (but the Supreme Court Chief Justice and a Duterte critic was removed in an irregular fashion).
Singapore exemplifies what China strives for: resilient authoritarianism despite advanced development with good governance and political stability. But lessons Chinese observers draw from the Southeast Asian city-state have been selective, leading to misconceptions. We focus on three key areas in which Chinese observers claim inspiration from the “Singapore model.” The first, Singapore's “Asian values” discourse which is seen to provide an ideological defense of non-democratic rule, overestimates the impact of top-down conservative culturalism while underestimating the difficulty of propagating Confucianism in officially still communist China. Second, while elections in Singapore are seen to bolster the ruling People Action Party's legitimacy in Singapore, they have been implemented to such a limited extent in China that any legitimation gain is unlikely. Finally, the chief lesson derived from Singapore's fight against corruption, the importance of a committed leadership, ignores the importance of the rule of law in Singapore, a legacy of colonialism very different from China's post-totalitarian trajectory.
This special section deals with China's longstanding fascination with Singapore's development experience that has preoccupied post-Maoist leaders from Deng Xiaoping to Xi Jinping despite the obvious differences between the tiny Southeast Asian city-state and the most populous country on earth. In particular, there is great Chinese interest in Singapore's success in combining effective governance and efficient state capitalism with stable one-party dominant rule. As a consequence, Chinese observers paid much less attention to electoral democracies that were well-governed states with mature economies.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
In the last three decades, a number of Asian thinkers supportive of, or opposed to, authoritarian rule have developed culture-based theories of democracy that challenge, or buttress, a liberal, “Western” understanding of democratic rule. The most famous expression was the “Asian values” discourse of government-linked intellectuals in Singapore and Malaysia, but there has also been a “political Confucianist” critique of “Western democracy” in China as well as claims that only “Thai-style democracy” is appropriate in Thailand. Less well known is a pro-democratic stance in Asia rooted in the region's major religious traditions. These apparently contradictory discourses have been dialectically related in the post–Cold War era: authoritarian rulers reacted to universalist claims about democracy with assertions of cultural particularism which, in turn, triggered a reaction by Asian democrats who pointed to the liberal character of world religions practiced in the region. While the civilizational critique of “Western” democracy (the origins of which can be traced to Imperial Germany and Meiji Japan) has contributed to democratic decline in the region, there has also been push back by offering an interpretation based on East Asia's major religious traditions to show that “Asian values” are not incompatible with democracy.
Microdroplet deposition is a technology that spans applications from tissue engineering to microelectronics. Our new high-speed imaging measurements reveal how sequential linear deposition of overlapping droplets on flat uniform substrates leads to striking non-uniform morphologies for moderate contact angles. We develop a simple physical model, which for the first time captures the post-impact dynamics drop-by-drop: surface-tension drives liquid redistribution, contact-angle hysteresis underlies initial non-uniformity, while viscous effects cause subsequent periodic variations.