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Although the Vatican pragmatically accepted the establishment of segregated Catholic institutions in the Jim Crow South during the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, its condemnation of Nazi and fascist racism and espousal of the doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ rejected racial distinctions. This article argues that Rome's postwar transnational interest in countering international communism and appealing to the global South also encouraged its support for racial equality, integration and the civil rights movement, and denial of religious legitimacy to segregationists. Yet Catholic desegregation in the South was largely token and one-sided, and closed many black institutions.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Results of protein residue and lithic microwear analyses are reported for Paleoindian and Early Archaic stone tools from a Carolina bay sand rim on the Aiken Plateau of South Carolina, USA. Protein residue analysis is performed using crossover Immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), and indicates positive results for Bovidae, Cervidae, Galliformes, and Meleagris gallopavo. These results are complemented by a larger immunological study of 135 diagnostic hafted bifaces from South Carolina and Georgia. Among other species identified, bovid residue was found on multiple Paleoindian hafted bifaces, an Early Archaic hafted biface, and a Middle Archaic hafted biface. Results suggest continuity of species selection and availability across the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary and provide no support for the exploitation of extinct fauna. The data do provide compelling evidence for a demographic shift and/or regional extirpation of Bovidae possibly as late as the early mid-Holocene in the Southeast. In addition, microwear analysis of artifacts from Flamingo Bay indicate intensive hide scraping, antler boring, bone graving/planing/pointing, wood whittling, and hafting traces. Microwear data suggest intentional snap-fracture or bipolarization of exhausted or broken Clovis points for reuse as hide scrapers, and use of large bifacial knives and unifacial scrapers in intensive defleshing activities consistent with large animal butchery.
Submerged artificial surface imitates newly available habitat for settlement of marine fauna. It also enables study of the timing of benthic larval settlement. Such knowledge is important if the model of possible recovery after disturbance in protected areas is to be assessed. During this study recruitment of sessile benthic invertebrate fauna at spatial and temporal scales was investigated using artificial panels submerged in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (Wales, UK). Panels were exchanged monthly between May 2009 and September 2011 (with the exclusion of winter time). Recruitment was highly variable with regard to time and distribution; abundance and number of recruiting species varied significantly between sites (about 2 km apart from each other), depths (6 and 12 m), position on panels (top or underside) and years without any obvious trends. The highest number of individuals and highest values of species richness were at Bernies Rocks, at the greater depth and on the underside surface of panels. Bryozoans were the dominant taxon on panels in each studied year and month. Most macrofaunal species noted on panels exhibit a colonial life strategy with short-lived, non-feeding larval stage. Although many species settle all year round, levels of settlement usually peak in summer months, showing a seasonal recruitment pattern (Bugula fulva, Spirobranchus triqueter, Chorizopora brongniarti and Escharoides coccinea). Some species had a pronounced settlement peak in spring (e.g. Electra pilosa and Balanus crenatus).
This chapter presents the major mental health topics of concern in pregnant patients and offers guidelines in the management of these patients in the emergency setting. Suicidal and violent symptoms should be assessed in any patient presenting with emotional, psychological, or social stress. Unipolar disorders, such as major depression, and bipolar disorders comprise the mood disorders. They tend to have an age of onset that coincides with the peak years of childbearing. The management of depression in pregnancy depends upon the severity and course of illness, presence of depression before pregnancy, treatment before or during pregnancy, available resources, and the patient's level of support. Like the mood disorders, anxiety disorders remain problematic during pregnancy; pregnancy is not protective against these symptoms. Patients with a positive domestic violence screen should be referred for treatment. Treatment varies from formal domestic violence consultations to safe havens.
F15599 is a novel agonist with high selectivity and efficacy at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1ARs). In signal transduction, electrophysiological and neurochemical tests, F15599 preferentially activates post-synaptic 5-HT1ARs in rat frontal cortex. Such a profile may translate to an improved profile of therapeutic activity for mood disorders. The in-vivo effects of F15599 were therefore compared with those of a related compound, F13714, in rat models of antidepressant activity and 5-HT1AR activation: forced swimming test (FST), conditioned stress-induced ultrasonic vocalization, 5-HT syndrome, plasma corticosterone and body temperature. Acute administration of F15599 or F13714 reduced immobility in the FST at low doses; these effects were long lasting and the effects of F15599 were maintained after repeated (5 d, p.o.) administration. Both compounds decreased ultrasonic vocalization duration at low doses. In contrast, higher doses of F15599 were required to induce lower lip retraction, elements of the 5-HT behavioural syndrome, hypothermia and to increase plasma corticosterone levels. Notably, there was a greater separation of ED50 between FST and other effects for F15599 than for F13714. Thus, the in-vivo potency of F15599 in models of antidepressant/anti-stress activity is similar to that of F13714, despite the fact that the latter has an in-vitro potency two orders of magnitude greater. In contrast F15599 has a lower propensity than F13714 to induce other serotonergic signs. The distinctive pharmacological profile of F15599 suggests that preferential targeting of post-synaptic 5-HT1ARs constitutes a promising strategy for improved antidepressant therapy.