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Featuring contributions from leading lawyers, historians and social scientists, this path-breaking volume explores encounters of laws, people, and places in Australia since 1788. Its chapters address three major themes: the development of Australian settler law in the shadow of the British Empire; the interaction between settler law and First Nations people; and the possibility of meaningful encounter between First laws and settler legal regimes in Australia. Several chapters explore the limited space provided by Australian settler law for respectful encounters, particularly in light of the High Court's particular concerns about the fragility of Australian sovereignty. Tracing the development of a uniquely Australian law and the various contexts that shaped it, this volume is concerned with the complexity, plurality, and ambiguity of Australia's legal history.
Many persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have one or more preventable chronic diseases related to excessive energetic intake and poor eating patterns. Appropriate nutrient consumption relative to need becomes a concern despite authoritative dietary recommendations from around the world. These recommendations were developed for the non-disabled population and do not account for the injury-induced changes in body composition, hypometabolic rate, hormonal dysregulation and nutrition status after SCI. Because evidence-based dietary reference intake values for SCI do not exist, ensuring appropriate consumption of macronutrient and micronutrients for their energy requirements becomes a challenge. In this compressive review, we briefly evaluate aspects of energy balance and appetite control relative to SCI. We report on the evidence regarding energy expenditure, nutrient intake and their relationship after SCI. We compare these data with several established nutritional guidelines from American Heart Association, Australian Dietary Guidelines, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake, Public Health England Government Dietary Recommendations, WHO Healthy Diet and the Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA) Clinical Practice Guidelines. We also provide practical assessment and nutritional recommendations to facilitate a healthy dietary pattern after SCI. Because of a lack of strong SCI research, there are currently limited dietary recommendations outside of the PVA guidelines that capture the unique nutrient needs after SCI. Future multicentre clinical trials are needed to develop comprehensive, evidence-based dietary reference values specific for persons with SCI across the care continuum that rely on accurate, individual assessment of energy need.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons causing muscle atrophy and weakness. Nusinersen, the first effective SMA therapy was approved by Health Canada in June 2017 and has been added to the provincial formulary of all but one Canadian province. Access to this effective therapy has triggered the inclusion of SMA in an increasing number of Newborn Screening (NBS) programs. However, the range of disease-modifying SMN2 gene copy numbers encountered in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1)-null individuals means that neither screen-positive definition nor resulting treatment decisions can be determined by SMN1 genotype alone. We outline an approach to this challenge, one that specifically addresses the case of SMA newborns with four copies of SMN2.
To develop a standardized post-referral evaluation pathway for babies with a positive SMA NBS screen result.
An SMA NBS pilot trial in Ontario using first-tier MassARRAY and second-tier multi-ligand probe amplification (MLPA) was launched in January 2020. Prior to this, Ontario pediatric neuromuscular disease and NBS experts met to review the evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of children with SMA as it pertained to NBS. A post-referral evaluation algorithm was developed, outlining timelines for patient retrieval and management.
Ontario’s pilot NBS program has created a standardized path to facilitate early diagnosis of SMA and initiation of treatment. The goal is to provide timely access to those SMA infants in need of therapy to optimize motor function and prolong survival.
Stars form in clusters, while planets form in gaseous disks around young stars. Cluster dissolution occurs on longer time scales than disk dispersal. Planet formation thus typically takes place while the host star is still inside the cluster. We explore how the presence of other stars affects the evolution of circumstellar disks. Our numerical approach requires multi-scale and multi-physics simulations where the relevant components and their interactions are resolved. The simulations start with the collapse of a turbulent cloud, from which stars with disks form, which are able to influence each other. We focus on the effect of extinction due to residual cloud gas on the early evolution of circumstellar disks. We find that this extinction protects circumstellar disks against external photoevaporation, but these disks then become vulnerable to dynamic truncation by passing stars. We conclude that circumstellar disk evolution is heavily affected by the early evolution of the cluster.