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Ernst Troeltsch and the ‘Systematic Theology of the History of Religion School’
Although he was an extraordinary polymath who dabbled in many different areas of theology, philosophy and history, Ernst Troeltsch spent most of his career as a teacher of systematic theology. At Heidelberg University, where he was professor from 1894 to 1915, Troeltsch lectured regularly (usually five times per week) on systematic theology beginning in the summer semester of 1894 with a lecture course on ‘Christliche Dogmatik’. This course was continued as ‘Dogmatik’ along with lectures on Friedrich Schleiermacher's life and teaching (winter semester of 1894– 95). In the summer semester of 1895 he taught history of Protestant theology in the nineteenth century and ethics. This was followed by the ‘History of Dogma’ (winter semester of 1895– 96) and then ‘Glaubenslehre’ (Teaching of the faith) in the summer semester of 1896. This course was continued in the next semester (‘Glaubenslehre’ II) along with a course on ‘Symbolik’, or study of the distinct confessions of the faith. He also offered a course on ‘Theologische Encyclopädie’ (which might best be translated as ‘Outline of Theology’) from the winter semester of 1897– 98. These courses, along with regular lectures on ethics and philosophy of religion, were repeated on an annual basis right through his time in Heidelberg, with the final lectures on ‘Glaubenslehre’ II being given in the winter semester of 1914– 15. In total the lectures on ‘Glaubenslehre’ or ‘Dogmatik’ were given eleven times; ‘History of Dogma’ six times (finishing in the winter semester of 1905– 6); ‘Symbolik’ nine times (finishing in the summer semester of 1913); ‘History of Protestant Theology in the Nineteenth Century’ (five times until summer semester of 1909); and ‘Theologische Encyclopädie’ (five times until winter semester of 1905– 6).
Although his publications in other areas certainly outnumbered his writings on dogmatics, Troeltsch's reputation as a teacher depended on his lectures on systematic theology and ethics (which in the German division of theology is also usually included as a branch of systematic theology). He also contributed many articles on dogmatic themes to the first edition of the magnum opus of the history of religion school, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, which was published between 1909 and 1913 by J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) and edited by Friedrich Michael Schiele und Leopold Zscharnack.
We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women's scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men's did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD versus Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. (JINS, 2011, 17, 654–662)
This essay discusses the political thought of Rowan Williams in the context of his leading influences and wider theology. It shows the continuity in his political writing from his early days as a radical to his frequent political speeches and lectures as Archbishop of Canterbury. The over-riding theme is that of ‘interactive pluralism’, which seeks to establish a form of politics with a very weak system of sovereignty. This influenced his 2008 lecture on ‘Civil and Religious Law in England: a Religious Perspective’, which suggested a limited role for parallel religious law codes alongside those of the state. Although this lecture was subject to much criticism, particularly in the popular press, it nevertheless displays a consistency with his strongly disestablishmentarian inclinations, which give a large amount of space to ‘first-level’ institutions in both decision-making and community formation. A healthy society is established through dispute and dialogue between such groups rather than strong centralized power.
This article discusses the theology of one of the major figures of theology in Edwardian England, Charles Gore (1853–1932), particularly his understanding of kenosis and vulnerability in relation to Christ and the Christian. Beginning with an analysis of the loss of invulnerability by the Church of England, the article uses the theology of Donald Mackinnon as a backdrop for understanding the notion of ‘rough discipleship’ outlined by Gore which strips away the trappings of power. Through a detailed discussion of Gore's works on the incarnation and the Sermon on the Mount, a picture is drawn of the requirements of the Christian character as well as what he regarded as the authentic church freed from the state. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of kenoticism in relation to the crisis of authority in contemporary Anglicanism. Assertions of power and authority are shown to be a denial of the complexity and vulnerability implied by the powerlessness and tragedy of Christ.
This paper traces the history of the Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom, one of the most successful of the eccentric and idiosyncratic private ecumenical initiatives of the mid-nineteenth century. The principal motivation behind the venture was a Romantic medievalism inspired by the lay Roman Catholic Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle and the Anglican ritualist priest, Frederick George Lee. While initially attracting widespread support, the leaders failed to recognise the power of vested interests in both Churches. After a vigorous denunciation by Henry Manning, the hopes of reunion proved to be little more than a dream.
An outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium involving 28 infants in a neonatal intensive care unit was observed. Successful control of the outbreak was achieved following use of patient and staff cohorting, contact isolation precautions, patient and environmental surveillance cultures, environmental decontamination, molecular typing, introduction of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant, and decreased use of vancomycin.
The Göttingen New Testament Professor, Wilhelm Bousset observed that historical research was in ‘danger of placing Christianity in the flux of development’, of ‘failing to give due worth to its special character and unique meaning, and thereby neutralising and relativising everything’. ‘The halo of the supernatural which had clung around “sacred history” was destroyed,’ and history had become a ‘labyrinth for modern religious liberalism’, where it threatened ‘to betray itself’. In their attempts to avoid such a relativisation of the Christian faith, most of the members of the History of Religion School sought refuge in a primordial mystical experience expressive of non-rational feelings, of emotions, moods and fantasies.