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The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is the most widely used measure of perceived stress; however, minimal psychometric evaluation has been performed among Hispanic respondents, and even less among Hispanic caregivers to persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRDs).
Secondary data analysis.
New York City, NY, USA.
A sample of 453 community dwelling Hispanic caregivers to patients with ADRD.
Latent variable models were used to evaluate the PSS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine unidimensionality. Differential item functioning (DIF) was examined for age, education, and language using the graded item response model.
The factor and bifactor analyses results supported essential unidimensionality of the item set; however, positively worded items were observed using response item theory to be less informative than the negatively worded items. Reliability estimates were high. Salient DIF was not observed for age, education, or language of interview using the primary DIF detection method. Sensitivity analyses using a second DIF detection method identified uniform language-DIF for the item, “In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of things?” However, the non-compensatory DIF value was below the threshold considered salient.
In summary, the 10-item PSS performed well in a sample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic caregivers to patients with ADRD. Very little DIF, and none of high magnitude and impact, was observed. However, the negatively worded items, perhaps because they are more directly reflective of stress, were more informative. In the context of a short-form measure or computerized adaptive test, more informative items are those that would be selected for inclusion.
Although the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care measure have been examined in diverse settings internationally; little evidence exists regarding measurement equivalence in Hispanic caregivers. The aim was to examine the psychometric properties of a short-form of the FAMCARE in Hispanics using latent variable models and place information on differential item functioning (DIF) in an existing family satisfaction item bank.
The graded form of the item response theory model was used for the analyses of DIF; sensitivity analyses were performed using a latent variable logistic regression approach. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine dimensionality were performed within each subgroup studied. The sample included 1,834 respondents: 317 Hispanic and 1,517 non-Hispanic White caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and cancer, respectively.
There was strong support for essential unidimensionality for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White subgroups. Modest DIF of low magnitude and impact was observed; flagged items related to information sharing. Only 1 item was flagged with significant DIF by both a primary and sensitivity method after correction for multiple comparisons: “The way the family is included in treatment and care decisions.” This item was more discriminating for the non-Hispanic, White responders than for the Hispanic subsample, and was also a more severe indicator at some levels of the trait; the Hispanic respondents located at higher satisfaction levels were more likely than White non-Hispanic respondents to report satisfaction.
Significance of results
The magnitude of DIF was below the salience threshold for all items. Evidence supported the measurement equivalence and use for cross-cultural comparisons of the short-form FAMCARE among Hispanic caregivers, including those interviewed in Spanish.
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