To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) is characterized by neonatal epileptic encepahalopathy responsive to pharmacological doses of vitamin B6. Recently an autosomal recessive deficiency in Antiquitin (ALDH7A1), a gene involved in the catabolism of lysine has been identified as the underlying cause.
In 21 and 23 year-old sisters, who had presented with neonatal / early infantile onset seizures, PDE was confirmed by elevated urinary alpha aminoadipic- 6- semialdehyde (α-AASA) excretion and compound heterozygosity for two known ALDH7A1 missense mutations. Although epilepsy was well controlled upon treatment with pyridoxine, thiamine, phenytoin and carbamazepine since early infancy, both had developmental delay with prominent speech delay as children. As adults, despite the same genetic background and early treatment with pyridoxine, their degree of intellectual disability (ID) differed widely. While the older sister's cognitive functions were in the moderate ID range and she was not able to live unattended, the younger sister had only mild ID and was able to live independently.
Although seizures are a defining feature of PDE, other disease manifestations can vary widely even within the same family. Adult neurologists should be aware that the diagnosis of PDE can be delayed and PDE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults with seizure disorders dating from childhood.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase A. Late onset forms are relatively rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is characteristic at all ages.
A patient in her late 40s with peripheral neuropathy was assessed by EEG, evoked potentials, CTand nerve conduction studies. Nerve and muscle biopsy samples were investigated by electron microscopy. Arylsulfatase A activity in leukocytes and excreted cerebroside sulfate were determined. The arylsulfatase A gene was investigated for mutations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNAsequencing. The identified mutation was expressed transiently in African green monkey kidney (COS) cells to determine the effect of the mutation on arylsulfatase A activity.
Central nervous system functions were normal. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased. Sural nerve biopsy showed inclusions typical of MLD. Arylsulfatase A was less than 5% of normal. A homozygous mutation thr286pro was identified in the arylsulfatase A gene and demonstrated to be deleterious through transient expression studies.
Our patient has a progressive peripheral neuropathy but has apparently intact CNS function at her present age of 57 years. Biochemical, physiological and pathological findings are consistent with a diagnosis of MLD. A homozygous mutation, thr286pro, found in her arylsulfatase A gene, decreased enzyme activity to a level consistent with a late onset form of MLD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.