To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Commission 25 (C25) deals with the techniques and issues involved with the measurement of optical and infrared radiation intensities and polarization from astronomical sources. As such, in recent years attention has focused on photometric standard stars, atmospheric extinction, photometric passbands, transformation between systems, nomenclature, and observing and reduction techniques. At the start of the trimester C25 changed its name from Stellar Photometry and Polarization to Astronomical Photometry and Polarization so as to explicitly include in its mandate particular issues arising from the measurement of resolved sources, given the importance of photometric redshifts of distant galaxies for many of the large photometric surveys now underway. We begin by summarizing commission activities over the 2012-2014 period, follow with a report on Polarimetry, continue with Photometry topics that have been of interest to C25 members, and conclude with a Vision for the Future.
Vahid Sandoghdar, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light and Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nürnberg,
Mario Agio, National Institute of Optics (INO-CNR) and European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy (LENS),
Xue-Wen Chen, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light,
Stephan Götzinger, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nürnberg and Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light,
Kwang-Geol Lee, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light
The atom is the most elementary constituent of any model that describes the quantum nature of light–matter interaction. Because atoms emit and absorb light at well-defined frequencies, nineteenth century scientists thought of them as collections of harmonically oscillating electric dipole moments or EHDs. In the language of modern physics, the latter represent dipolar transitions among the various quantum mechanical states of an atom.
In a strict definition, the field of quantum optics deals with problems that not only require the quantization of matter but also of the electromagnetic field, with examples such as (i) generation of squeezed light or Fock states, (ii) strong coupling of an atom and a photon, (iii) entanglement of a photon with an atom and (iv) Casimir and van der Waals forces. There are also many other important topics that have been discussed within the quantum optics community but do not necessarily require a full quantum electrodynamic (QED) treatment. Examples are (i) cooling and trapping of atoms, (ii) precision spectroscopy and (iii) modification of spontaneous emission.
The simple picture of a TLS as an EHD remains very insightful and valuable to this day. Indeed, much of what we discuss in this chapter has to do with the interplay between the quantum and classical mechanical characters of dipolar oscillators. For instance, the extinction cross-section of a TLS, given by 3λ2/2π, can be derived just as well using quantum mechanics  or classical optics . Another example, albeit more subtle, concerns the spontaneous emission rate.
The Business Meeting was opened by the president, Imants Platais. He presented the agenda which was unanimously approved. This session was attended by 40 participants. The meeting approved Dafydd Evans as secretary of minutes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.