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CSF shunting procedures are generally considered the fundamental therapy of syphilitic hydrocephalus.
We followed up with CSF analysis and MR imaging a patient with progressive mental and gait disturbances and tetraventricular hydrocephalus due to tertiary syphilis who was treated for 14 days with high dose intravenous penicillin alone.
Clinical and CSF abnormalities resolved within a few months, whereas the hydrocephalus disappeared only 30 months after therapy.
Before consideration of a CSF shunting procedure, a trial of high dose intravenous penicillin is warranted for patients with syphilitic hydrocephalus.