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Little is known about physical constitution outcomes for very preterm infants. Here, we compare z-scores of anthropometric parameters up to 6 years of age in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) at less than 30 weeks of gestation, with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).
Participants were divided into four subgroups: male (M), small for gestational age (SGA) (n = 30); M, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (n = 59); female (F), SGA (n = 24); and F, AGA (n = 61). z-Scores of body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at birth, 1 year corrected age, 3 years of age, and 6 years of age.
For boys, BW and BMI were significantly lower among SGA children than among AGA children at all assessments, but there was no difference in BL at 3 or 6 years. For girls, BW and BL were significantly lower among SGA children than among AGA children at all assessments, but no difference was detected in BMI after 1.5 years. No significant variation in the z-score of BW or BMI in either SGA group was observed after 1 year. BL z-score in all groups gradually increased until 6 years of age.
IUGR affects BW and BMI in boys and BW and BL in girls during the first 6 years in VLBW children born at less than 30 weeks of gestation. SGA children did not catch up in BW or BMI from 1 to 6 years of age.
To determine the effectiveness of a personal support lifestyle education programme (PSMetS) for reducing risk factors in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A two-arm randomised controlled trial.
Companies in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan.
Male workers with diagnosed MetS or a high risk for MetS according to the Counselling Guidance Program, Japan (n 193).
The reduction in the number of risk factors for MetS (as defined according to the criteria published by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in April 2007 (MHLW-MetS)) in the PSMetS group was not significantly different from that in the usual care group by van Elteren’s test (baseline-adjusted P=0·075) for intention-to-treat (ITT), while it was significant (baseline-adjusted P=0·038) for per-protocol set (PPS). The proportion of MHLW-MetS was significantly different between groups by van Elteren’s test (baseline-adjusted P=0·031). Two components of MHLW-MetS showed significant reductions in the PSMetS group: waist circumference (baseline-adjusted P=0·001) and BMI (baseline-adjusted P=0·002). PPS and ITT analyses showed similar results.
For male workers with MHLW-MetS or a high risk of MHLW-MetS, PSMetS reduced the number of risk factors for MHLW-MetS.
The number of extremely thin young women has increased and education at school on maintaining an optimal weight has become important. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based home-collaborative dietary education (HCDE) programme to maintain appropriate dietary intake compared to conventional school classroom education.
Two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve classes were randomly assigned as clusters to either the HCDE group or the control group. Each participant in the HCDE group received twelve sessions of group counselling aimed at increasing energy intake at breakfast by modifying dietary intake and adopting appropriate habits. The hypothesis underlying the study was that after 6 months of HCDE the total energy intake would be increased by 627 kJ from baseline (primary endpoint). Secondary outcomes were differences in intake of various nutrients from baseline. Outcome measures after log transformation were examined by t tests and linear mixed models (crude and baseline-adjusted).
Young women among Japanese female adolescents in Tokyo.
Four hundred and seventy-four participants aged 13–15 years.
Students in twelve classes were used for analysis (n 459). Energy intake was decreased in many of the classes during the 6-month period, especially for those in the control group. After adjustment for the baseline value, significant increases in energy intake and protein, calcium, magnesium and iron intakes at breakfast were observed (P < 0·05)
Although energy intake was increased in the HCDE group compared to the control group, further study of the HCDE is warranted.
To assess the validity and reproducibility of a self-administered FFQ with eighty-two food items (FFQW82) for assessing the habitual diet in female adolescents.
The validity of the FFQW82 for assessment of nutrient intake was evaluated by comparison with a 7 d weighed food record (7d-FRRI) reported as ‘gold standard’. Reproducibility of the FFQW82 was assessed at an interval of 1 month (test–retest method). The first survey (FFQW82 and 7d-FRRI) was conducted in April 2007 and the second FFQW82 survey was conducted in May 2007. Daily consumption of energy from eleven food groups and nine nutrients were calculated from both instruments for breakfast, lunch, dinner and the whole day. Crude and energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated using log-transformed data.
Middle school, Tokyo, Japan.
Female adolescents aged 12–13 years.
Sixty-three female adolescents completed both surveys. The relative difference between the energy intake calculated by the FFQW82 and the 7d-FRRI for the whole day, breakfast, lunch and dinner was 8 %, 10 %, 15 % and 10 %, respectively. As for validity, the correlation coefficient of total energy intake for the whole day was 0·31. The result for breakfast was relatively higher (0·59) compared with that for lunch (0·40) and dinner (0·32). For macronutrients, the energy-adjusted correlation coefficient ranged from 0·28 (carbohydrates) to 0·53 (protein). Reproducibility of total energy intake was 0·62 and ranged from 0·46 (fat) to 0·69 (carbohydrate) for macronutrients.
These results suggest that the FFQW82 has proved to have some potential with regard to reproducibility among our study population.
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