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Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest various impairments in eating behavior. However, few previous studies have directly investigated the gustatory function of AD patients, and results have been inconsistent.
Thirty-two AD patients (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5/1/2, respectively 11/15/6 patients) and 22 normal control participants were examined to measure detection and recognition thresholds of the four elemental tastes (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter), and their ability to discriminate between tastes. Effects of demographic and clinical factors (age, sex, histories of alcohol and tobacco consumption, and CDR grade) on gustatory threshold were examined using ordinal logistic regression analysis. Performance was compared between AD and control groups.
Total threshold values (the sum of threshold grades for the four tastes) for detection and recognition of tastes were significantly higher in the AD group. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter, and recognition thresholds for sweet and sour, were also significantly higher in the AD group. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that CDR grade was the only factor that significantly affected both total threshold values. Regarding taste discrimination, there were no significant differences between the AD group and control group.
These findings suggest that progression of dementia severity accompanies gustatory decline. Although it seemingly paradoxical, weight loss and preference for sweet tastes are frequently, often simultaneously, observed in AD. Gustatory dysfunction may be partially involved in these symptoms. Thus, the nutritional care of patients with AD could be improved by making the taste of meals stronger, while controlling calorie and mineral intake.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.
This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34–70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR≥2·5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance.
Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013.
A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34–70 years.
The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose–response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose–response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption.
The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.
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