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Urgent care centers (UCCs) have become frontline healthcare facilities for individuals with acute infectious diseases. Additionally, UCCs could potentially support the healthcare system response during a public health emergency. Investigators sought to assess NYC UCCs’ implementation of nationally-recommended IPC and EP practices.
Investigators identified 199 eligible UCCs based on criteria defined by the Urgent Care Association of America. Multiple facilities under the same ownership were considered a network. As part of a cross-sectional analysis, an electronic survey was sent to UCC representatives assessing their respective facilities’ IPC and EP practices. Representatives of urgent care networks responded on behalf of all UCCs within the network if all sites within the network used the same policies and procedures.
Of the respondents, 18 representing 144 UCCs completed the survey. Of these, 8 of them (44.4% of the respondents) represented more than 1 facility that utilized standardized practices (range = 2-60 facilities). Overall, 81.3% have written IPC policies, 75.0% have EP policies, 80.6% require staff to train on IPC, and 75.7% train staff on EP.
Most UCCs reported implementation of IPC and EP practices; however, the comprehensiveness of these activities varied across UCCs. Public health can better prepare the healthcare system by engaging UCCs in planning and executing of IPC and EP-related initiatives.
This study examines interactional management practices and narrative co-construction in lawyer-asylum seeker consultations in Flanders, Belgium. Drawing upon linguistic-ethnographic fieldwork, it presents a case study of a consultation between an Afghan applicant for international protection, his adviser, and his lawyer. The purpose of the consultation is to prepare the applicant for testifying at the upcoming asylum hearing. Data analysis focuses on (i) the reorientation of the asylum narrative from an authentic-experiential towards a more objectified formal-institutional account; (ii) the participants’ positioning work that indexes this reorientation process; and (iii) their fluctuating alignment of local-interactional and translocal-gatekeeping perspectives. In the discussion, we analyse the consultation in terms of competing legal and experiential voices and views on participant roles/responsibilities. We reflect on how this ambiguity of roles and ideologies relates to the constructed character of credibility, which reveals the importance of adequate legal assistance in this linguistically challenging context. (Legal consultations, asylum procedure, linguistic ethnography, narrative performance, credibility assessment)*
This study evaluated whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), a parenting intervention, altered the attachment representations of parents (average age of 34.2 years) who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) due to risk for child maltreatment when their children were infants. Approximately 7 years after completing the intervention, parents who had been randomized to receive ABC (n = 43) exhibited greater secure base script knowledge than parents who had been randomized to receive a control intervention (n = 51). Low-risk parents (n = 79) exhibited greater secure base script knowledge than CPS-referred parents who had received a control intervention. However, levels of secure base script knowledge did not differ between low-risk parents and CPS-referred parents who had received the ABC intervention. In addition, secure base script knowledge was positively associated with parental sensitivity during interactions with their 8-year-old children among low-risk and CPS-referred parents. Mediational analyses supported the idea that the ABC intervention enhanced parents’ sensitivity 7 years later indirectly via increases in parents’ secure base script knowledge.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) bacteriuria and to determine whether urinary catheters increase the risk of subsequent CRE bacteremia.
Using active population- and laboratory-based surveillance we described a cohort of patients with incident CRE bacteriuria and identified risk factors for developing CRE bacteremia within 1 year.
The study was conducted among the 8 counties of Georgia Health District 3 (HD3) in Atlanta, Georgia.
Residents of HD3 with CRE first identified in urine between 2012 and 2017.
We identified 464 patients with CRE bacteriuria (mean yearly incidence, 1.96 cases per 100,000 population). Of 425 with chart review, most had a urinary catheter (56%), and many resided in long-term care facilities (48%), had a Charlson comorbidity index >3 (38%) or a decubitus ulcer (37%). 21 patients (5%) developed CRE bacteremia with the same organism within 1 year. Risk factors for subsequent bacteremia included presence of a urinary catheter (odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–34.9), central venous catheter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.7–10.6) or another indwelling device (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6–11.4), urine culture obtained as an inpatient (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3–25.9), and being in the ICU in the week prior to urine culture (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1–7.8). In a multivariable analysis, urinary catheter increased the risk of CRE bacteremia (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2–23.6).
In patients with CRE bacteriuria, urinary catheters increase the risk of CRE bacteremia. Future interventions should aim to reduce inappropriate insertion and early removal of urinary catheters.
To test the feasibility of targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel caring for high-risk nursing-home residents to prevent Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in short-stay residents.
Uncontrolled clinical trial.
This study was conducted in 2 community-based nursing homes in Maryland.
The study included 322 residents on mixed short- and long-stay units.
During a 2-month baseline period, all residents had nose and inguinal fold swabs taken to estimate S. aureus acquisition. The intervention was iteratively developed using a participatory human factors engineering approach. During a 2-month intervention period, healthcare personnel wore gowns and gloves for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, and S. aureus acquisition was measured again. Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess whether the acquisition represented resident-to-resident transmission.
Among short-stay residents, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus acquisition rate decreased from 11.9% during the baseline period to 3.6% during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08–0.92; P = .026). The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus acquisition rate went from 9.1% during the baseline period to 4.0% during the intervention period (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.12–1.42; P = .15). The S. aureus resident-to-resident transmission rate decreased from 5.9% during the baseline period to 0.8% during the intervention period.
Targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, regardless of their S. aureus colonization status, is feasible and potentially decreases S. aureus acquisition and transmission in short-stay community-based nursing-home residents.
Background: In April 2019, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) initiated whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae identified since January 2018. The WGS data analyzed at CDC identified related Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with hypervirulence markers from 2 patients. Carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CP-hvKP) are rarely reported in the United States, but they can to cause serious, highly resistant, invasive infections. We conducted an investigation to identify cases and prevent spread. Methods: We defined a case as NDM-producing K. pneumoniae with ≥4 hypervirulence markers identified by WGS, isolated from any specimen source from a Georgia patient. We reviewed the case patient’s medical history to identify potentially affected facilities. We also performed PCR-based colonization screening and retrospective and prospective laboratory-based surveillance. Finally, we assessed facility infection control practices. Results: Overall, 7 cases from 3 case patients (A, B, and C) were identified (Fig. 1). The index case specimen was collected from case-patient A at ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility 1 (vSNF1) in May 2018. Case-patient A had been hospitalized for 1 month in India before transfer to the United States. Case-patient B’s initial isolate was collected in January 2019 on admission to vSNF2 from a critical access hospital (CAH). The CAH laboratory retrospectively identified case-patient C, who overlapped with case-patient B at the CAH in October 2018. The CAH and the vSNF2 are geographically distant from vSNF1. Case-patients B and C had no known epidemiologic links to case-patient A. Colonization screening occurred at vSNF1 in May 2018, following detection of NDM-producing K. pneumoniae from case-patient A ∼1 year before determining that the isolate carried hypervirulence markers. Among 30 residents screened, 1 had NDM and several had other carbapenemases. Subsequent screening did not identify additional NDM. Colonization screening of 112 vSNF2 residents and 13 CAH patients in 2019 did not reveal additional case patients; case-patient B resided at vSNF2 at the time of screening and remained colonized. At all 3 facilities, the DPH assessed infection control practices, issued recommendations to resolve lapses, and monitored implementation. The DPH sequenced all 27 Georgia NDM–K. pneumoniae isolates identified since January 2018; all were different multilocus sequence types from the CP-hvKP isolates, and none possessed hypervirulence markers. Conclusions: We hypothesize that CP-hvKP was imported by a patient hospitalized in India and spread to 3 Georgia facilities in 2 distinct geographic regions through indirect patient transfers. Although a response to contain NDM at vSNF1 in 2018 likely limited CP-hvKP transmission, WGS identified hvKP and established the relatedness of isolates from distinct regions, thereby directing the DPH’s additional containment activities to halt transmission.
Background: Hospitalists play a critical role in antimicrobial stewardship as the primary antibiotic prescriber for many inpatients. We sought to describe antibiotic prescribing variation among hospitalists within a healthcare system. Methods: We created a novel metric of hospitalist-specific antibiotic prescribing by linking hospitalist billing data to hospital medication administration records in 4 hospitals (two 500-bed academic (AMC1 and AMC2), one 400-bed community (CH1), and one 100-bed community (CH2)) from January 2016 to December 2018. We attributed dates that a hospitalist electronically billed for a given patient as billed patient days (bPD) and mapped an antibiotic day of therapy (DOT) to a bPD. Each DOT was classified according to National Healthcare Safety Network antibiotic categories: broad-spectrum hospital-onset (BS-HO), broad-spectrum community-onset (BS-CO), anti-MRSA, and highest risk for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). DOT and bPD were pooled to calculate hospitalist-specific DOT per 1,000 bPD. Best subsets regression was performed to assess model fit and generate hospital and antibiotic category-specific models adjusting for patient-level factors (eg, age ≥65, ICD-10 codes for comorbidities and infections). The models were used to calculate predicted hospitalist-specific DOT and observed-to-expected ratios (O:E) for each antibiotic category. Kruskal-Wallis tests and pairwise Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine significant differences between median DOT per 1,000 bPD and O:E between hospitals for each antibiotic category. Results: During the study period, 116 hospitalists across 4 hospitals contributed a total of 437,303 bPD. Median DOT per 1,000 bPD varied between hospitals (BS-HO range, 46.7–84.2; BS-CO range, 63.3–100; anti-MRSA range, 48.4–65.4; CDI range, 82.0–129.4). CH2 had a significantly higher median DOT per 1,000 bPD compared to the academic hospitals (all antibiotic categories P < .001) and CH1 (BS-HO, P = .01; anti-MRSA, P = .02) (Fig. 1A). The 4 antibiotic groups at 4 hospitals resulted in 16 models, with good model fit for CH2 (R2 > 0.55 for all models), modest model fit for AMC2 (R2 = 0.46–0.55), fair model fit for CH1 (R2 = 0.19–0.35), and poor model fit for AMC1 (R2 < 0.12 for all models). Variation in hospitalist-specific O:E was moderate (IQR, 0.9–1.1). AMC1 showed greater variation than other hospitals, but we detected no significant differences in median O:E between hospitals (all antibiotic categories P > .10) (Fig. 1B). Conclusions: Adjusting for patient-level factors significantly reduced much of the variation in hospitalist-specific DOT per 1,000 bPD in some but not all hospitals, suggesting that unmeasured factors may drive antibiotic prescribing. This metric may represent a target for stewardship intervention, such as hospitalist-specific feedback of antibiotic prescribing practices.
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin, consulting fee - vaccine industry (various) (spouse)
Background: Chlorhexidine bathing reduces bacterial skin colonization and prevents infections in specific patient populations. As chlorhexidine use becomes more widespread, concerns about bacterial tolerance to chlorhexidine have increased; however, testing for chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is challenging. We adapted a broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine whether chlorhexidine MICs changed over time among 4 important healthcare-associated pathogens. Methods: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus from 2005 to 2019 and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae complex from 2011 to 2019) were collected through Emerging Infections Program surveillance in 2 sites (Georgia and Tennessee) or through public health reporting in 1 site (Orange County, California). A convenience sample of isolates were collected from facilities with varying amounts of chlorhexidine use. We performed BMD testing using laboratory-developed panels with chlorhexidine digluconate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 64 μg/mL. After successfully establishing reproducibility with quality control organisms, 3 laboratories performed MIC testing. For each organism, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established using ECOFFinder. Results: Among 538 isolates tested (129 S. aureus, 158 E. coli, 142 K. pneumoniae, and 109 E. cloacae complex), S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex ECVs were 8, 4, 64, and 64 µg/mL, respectively (Table 1). Moreover, 14 isolates had an MIC above the ECV (12 E. coli and 2 E. cloacae complex). The MIC50 of each species is reported over time (Table 2). Conclusions: Using an adapted BMD method, we found that chlorhexidine MICs did not increase over time among a limited sample of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex isolates. Although these results are reassuring, continued surveillance for elevated chlorhexidine MICs in isolates from patients with well-characterized chlorhexidine exposure is needed as chlorhexidine use increases.
To determine the effect of an electronic medical record (EMR) nudge at reducing total and inappropriate orders testing for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI).
An interrupted time series analysis of HO-CDI orders 2 years before and 2 years after the implementation of an EMR intervention designed to reduce inappropriate HO-CDI testing. Orders for C. difficile testing were considered inappropriate if the patient had received a laxative or stool softener in the previous 24 hours.
Four hospitals in an academic healthcare network.
All patients with a C. difficile order after hospital day 3.
Orders for C. difficile testing in patients administered a laxative or stool softener in <24 hours triggered an EMR alert defaulting to cancellation of the order (“nudge”).
Of the 17,694 HO-CDI orders, 7% were inappropriate (8% prentervention vs 6% postintervention; P < .001). Monthly HO-CDI orders decreased by 21% postintervention (level-change rate ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.86), and the rate continued to decrease (postintervention trend change RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.00). The intervention was not associated with a level change in inappropriate HO-CDI orders (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.61–1.05), but the postintervention inappropriate order rate decreased over time (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93–0.97).
An EMR nudge to minimize inappropriate ordering for C. difficile was effective at reducing HO-CDI orders, and likely contributed to decreasing the inappropriate HO-CDI order rate after the intervention.
We sampled individual growth rings from three ancient remnant bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) trees from a massive buried deposit at the mouth of the Altamaha River on the Georgia Coast to determine the best technique for radiocarbon (14C) dating pretreatment. The results of our comparison of traditional ABA pretreatment and holocellulose and α-cellulose fractions show no significant differences among the pretreatments (<1 sigma) thereby suggesting that ABA pretreatment will prove sufficient for the development of a high-resolution 14C tree-ring chronology based on these ancient bald cypresses which will indicate whether the U.S. Southeast is subject to a regional radiocarbon offset.
The recent discovery of a Late/Final Pre-Pottery Neolithic B burial of an adult and two children associated with fox bones at the site of Motza, Israel, demonstrates the broader socio-cultural perspective, and possibly continued animistic world views, of Neolithic foragers at the onset of the agricultural revolution.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To describe the epidemiology of patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacteriuria in metropolitan Atlanta, GA and to identify risk factors associated with progression to an invasive CRE infection. We hypothesize that having an indwelling urinary catheter increases the risk of progression. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Georgia Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performs active population- and laboratory-based surveillance to identify CRE isolated from a sterile site (e.g. blood) or urine among patients who reside in the 8-county metropolitan Atlanta area (population ~4 million). The Georgia EIP performs a chart review of each case to extract data on demographics, culture location, resistance patterns, healthcare exposures, and other underlying risk factors. We used a retrospective cohort study design to include all Georgia EIP cases with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, or Klebsiella (formerly Enterobacter) aerogenes, adapting the current EIP definition of resistance to only include isolates resistant to meropenem, imipenem or doripenem (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 4) first identified in a urine culture from 8/1/2011 to 7/31/2017. Patients with CRE identified in a sterile site culture prior to a urine culture will be excluded. Within this cohort, we will identify which patients had a subsequent similar CRE isolate identified from a sterile site between one day and one year after the original urine culture was identified (termed “progression”). CRE isolates will be defined as similar if they are the same species and have the same carbapenem susceptibility pattern. Univariable analyses using T-tests or other nonparametric tests for continuous variables, and Chi-square tests (or Fisher’s exact tests as appropriate) for categorical variables will compare patient demographics, comorbidities and presence of invasive devices including urinary catheters between patients who had progression to an invasive infection and those who did not have progression. Covariates with a p-value of < 0.2 will be eligible for inclusion in the multivariable logistic regression model with progression to invasive infection as the primary outcome. All statistical analyses will be done in SAS 9.4. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From 8/1/2011 to 7/31/2017 we have preliminarily identified 546 patients with CRE first identified in urine, representing an annual incidence rate of 1.1 cases per 100,000 population. Most cases were K. pneumoniae (352, 64%), followed by E. coli (117, 21%), E. cloacae (48, 9%), K. aerogenes (18, 3%), and K. oxytoca (11, 2%). The mean patient age was 64 +/− 18 years and the majority (308, 56%) were female. Clinical characterization through chart review was available for 507 patients. The majority of the patients were black (301, 59%), followed by white (166, 33%), Asian (12, 2%), and other or unknown race (28, 6%). 466 (92%) patients had at least one underlying comorbid condition with a median Charlson Comorbidity Index of 3 (IQR 1-5). 460 (91%) infections were considered healthcare-associated (366 community-onset and 94 hospital-onset), while 44 (9%) were community-associated. 279 (55%) patients had a urinary catheter within the two days prior to the CRE culture. The analysis of patients who progress to an invasive CRE infection, including the results of the univariable and multivariable analyses assessing risk factors for progression is in progress and will be reported in the future. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In metropolitan Atlanta, the annual incidence of CRE first isolated in urine was estimated to be 1.1 cases per 100,000 population between 2011 and 2017, with the majority of the cases being K. pneumoniae. Most patients had prior healthcare exposure and more than 50% of the patients had a urinary catheter. Our anticipated results will identify risk factors associated with progression from CRE bacteriuria to an invasive infection with a specific focus on having a urinary catheter, as this is a potentially modifiable characteristic that could be a target of future interventions.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
This paper attends to writing practices by way of examining how a professional regulator engages with research activities conducted by doctors. In order to explore regulatory responses to alleged research misconduct, I use a specific calligraphic practice shared by researchers and regulators. The paper shows that taking this calligraphic practice as an analytical focus can offer surprising dividends to the study of regulation across fields. Via the practice of strikethrough, the General Medical Council effectuates three gestures as it engages with research activities: display, authentication and isolation. Understanding them requires asking what literal and metaphorical meanings travel in the strikethrough.
To test Koctürk’s model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate.
Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status.
Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968).
Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies.
Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.
Evidence-based practice requires the use of data grounded in theory with clear conceptualization and reliable and valid measurement. Unfortunately, developing a knowledge base regarding children’s coping in the context of disasters, terrorism, and war has been hampered by a lack of theoretical consensus and a virtual absence of rigorous test construction, implementation, and evaluation. This report presents a comprehensive review of measurement tools assessing child and adolescent coping in the aftermath of mass trauma, with a particular emphasis on coping dimensions identified through factor analytic procedures. Coping measurement and issues related to the assessment of coping are reviewed. Concepts important in instrument development and psychometric features of coping measures used in disasters, terrorism, and war are presented. The relationships between coping dimensions and both youth characteristics and clinical outcomes also are presented. A discussion of the reviewed findings highlights the difficulty clinicians may experience when trying to integrate the inconsistencies in coping dimensions across studies. Incorporating the need for multiple informants and the difference between general and context-specific coping measures suggests the importance of a multilevel, theoretical conceptualization of coping and thus, the use of more advanced statistical measures. Attention also is given to issues deemed important for further exploration in child disaster coping research.
PfefferbaumB, NitiémaP, JacobsAK, NoffsingerMA, WindLH, AllenSF. Review of Coping in Children Exposed to Mass Trauma: Measurement Tools, Coping Styles, and Clinical Implications. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(2):169–180.