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The present study aimed to assess infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and the tracking of dietary diversity score (DDS), intakes of Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods and meal frequency in a peri-urban area in Nepal. Furthermore, to explore whether sociodemographic factors were associated with tracking patterns of these IYCF practices.
Longitudinal study. Monthly food intake was measured by 24 h recall. Four time slots were used (9–12, 13–16, 17–20 and 21–24 months). Tracking of IYCF practices was investigated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models and Cohen’s weighted kappa. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify determinants for tracking of the IYCF practices.
Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal.
Children (n 229) aged 9–24 months, randomly selected.
Prevalence of minimum meal frequency was higher than for minimum dietary diversity at all time slots. Tracking based on absolute measures (GEE models) was moderate for DDS (0·48) and meal frequency (0·53), and low for intakes of Fe- (0·23) and vitamin A-rich (0·35) foods. Tracking based on rank measured was moderate for DDS and meal frequency, and fair for Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods. Low socio-economic status significantly increased the odds (OR; 95 % CI) of tracking of low v. high DDS (3·31; 1·44, 7·60) and meal frequency (3·46; 1·54, 7·76).
Low tracking for intakes of Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods implies that interventions to improve these IYCF practices must address underlying causes for irregular intake to have sustainable effects.
Nutritional status has remained inadequate among disadvantaged mothers and small children in South Africa. Several supplementation programmes are administered through primary health clinics (PHC). The present study examined the perceptions of mothers who attend PHC and of the PHC staff on the purpose, management and eligibility of the vitamin A and nutritional supplementation components of the Nutrition Supplementation Programme (NSP).
Observational study based on anthropometry and questionnaires.
Random selection of ten urban and ten rural PHC from the Western Cape Province of South Africa.
Mothers (n 176) and their children (n 179) aged <5 years, and various PHC staff categories.
Half (56 %) of the households were classified as food insecure and about one-third of the children were malnourished, as evidenced by stunting, wasting or underweight. A majority of mothers complained about poor information related to the programmes. More than half of the children who were eligible for NSP were not included. In contrast, the staff felt that they managed both programmes well and problems with implementation were mostly attributed to clients.
In general, the mothers expressed more dissatisfaction and ignorance about the vitamin A programme and the NSP than was perceived by the staff. This apparent discrepancy might, at least in part, explain why these programmes do not work optimally.
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