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Maternal fish consumption exposes the fetus to beneficial nutrients and potentially adverse neurotoxicants. The current study investigated associations between maternal fish consumption and child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Maternal fish consumption was assessed in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 1 (n 229) using 4-day food diaries. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 9 and 30 months, and 5 and 9 years with test batteries assessing twenty-six endpoints and covering multiple neurodevelopmental domains. Analyses used multiple linear regression with adjustment for covariates known to influence child neurodevelopment. This cohort consumed an average of 8 fish meals/week and the total fish intake during pregnancy was 106·8 (sd 61·9) g/d. Among the twenty-six endpoints evaluated in the primary analysis there was one beneficial association. Children whose mothers consumed larger quantities of fish performed marginally better on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (a test of nonverbal intelligence) at age 5 years (β 0·003, 95 % CI (0, 0·005)). A secondary analysis dividing fish consumption into tertiles found no significant associations when comparing the highest and lowest consumption groups. In this cohort, where fish consumption is substantially higher than current global recommendations, maternal fish consumption during pregnancy was not beneficially or adversely associated with children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Patients were fully informed as to the study objectives and benefits, and provided written consent prior to enrolment. The study protocol was approved by the Committee on Human Research at the Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland. An intensification of free-radical reactions may contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis in kidney graft recipients. We examined the effect of a Mediterranean-type diet (MD) on the oxidative status of the plasma and erythrocytes of kidney graft recipients. Two patient groups were formed: a study group consuming the MD diet and a control group with a low-fat diet. C-reactive protein levels in plasma, oleic acid C18: 1n-9 and linoleic acid C18: 2n-6 concentrations in triacyloglycerols were determined. To determine the oxidative status, we measured the concentrations of α-tocopherol in plasma, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) in plasma and erythrocytes, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes. In the MD group, the activities of erythrocyte enzymes changed significantly: those of superoxide dismutase increased (P<0.001 after 6 months), catalase decreased (P<0.001 after 6 months) and glutathione peroxidase decreased (P<0.05 after 2 months). The oleic acid content of triacylglycerols was increased (P<0.006) whereas that of linoleic acid was decreased (P<0.00005), α-tocopherol levels remaining unchanged. TBARS in plasma were decreased after 6 months of MD (P<0.05). No significant correlations were observed between TBARS, oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-tocopherol levels in plasma. MD appears to protect the erythrocytes against the action of free radicals, as reflected in the modified activities of some enzymes regulating the oxidative status of these blood cells.
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