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This study compares the δ15N values and the trophic position of two seabird species throughout the late Holocene in three regions in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean to assess the hypothesis that the decimation of megafauna led to changes in the trophic position of mesopredators. Modern and ancient mollusk shells were also analyzed to account for changes in the isotopic baseline through time. Results revealed that modern Magellanic penguins have higher δ15N values than their ancient conspecifics in the three regions, after controlling for changes in the isotopic baseline. This was also true for modern Imperial shags compared with ancient unidentified cormorants/shags from the two areas where ancient specimens were recovered (southern Patagonia and the Beagle Channel). Such temporal variability might be caused by three non–mutually exclusive processes: decreased availability of pelagic squat lobster resulting from decreasing primary productivity through the late Holocene, increased availability of small fishes resulting from the sequential depletion of other piscivores (South American fur seal and sea lion and Argentine hake) since the late eighteenth century, and modification of the migratory patterns of Magellanic penguins. Although disentangling the relative contribution of all those processes is impossible at this time, the results reported here demonstrate that the ecology of Magellanic penguins and Imperial shags has undergone major changes since the late Holocene.
There has been increasing recognition of the potential of games in health; however, knowledge of their application in palliative care is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and map the available evidence on the use of games in palliative care, analyzing how research has been conducted on this topic and identifying gaps in knowledge.
A scoping review was carried out. The literature search was conducted using the respective descriptors and search syntax appropriate to each of the databases searched. The review included all study types with no time limits.
Of the 685 articles initially identified, 53 were included for final analysis. Several different game types were identified, with the majority of studies using role-play (n = 29) and card games (n = 17). The games analyzed were essentially aimed at empowering patients (n = 14), and in some cases, extended to families or caregivers, as well as to medical and nursing students. The analysis of the articles in this review resulted in two major themes: Role-playing for training in palliative care and card games to discuss end-of-life care.
Significance of results
Games allow space for the expression of emotions and promote creativity. They can be applied both in a training context, to enable health professionals to develop essential skills in palliative care, and for patients, families, and caregivers, allowing them to talk about serious things while playing.
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), can remain inside dry and deformed reproductive structures of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus (Malvaceae), known as dry bolls, during the cotton fallow to infest the next cotton crop. In this study, the influence of cotton cultivars and sowing densities on the formation of dry bolls was evaluated. In addition, dry bolls were dissected and internal structures that were related to boll weevil development were estimated. Finally, the presence and survival of boll weevils inside dry bolls were evaluated. The results indicate that the number of dry bolls, empty pupal cells, and emergence holes was influenced by cultivar and not by sowing density. Almost one-quarter (22.53%) of adult boll weevils examined was found alive inside the dry bolls after 10 weeks, which is slightly longer than the duration of cotton fallow in Brazil’s main cotton-producing regions. Therefore, remaining inside the dry bolls is an important survival strategy for boll weevils during the cotton fallow period, and cotton cultivars with a greater propensity for the formation of dry bolls might favour survival of the pest during this period.
Earlier reports revealed oxysterol metabolites of Opisthorchis spp. liver fluke origin conjugated with DNA bases, suggesting that the generation of these DNA-adducts may underlie the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the infection with these food-borne pathogens. Here, we employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate, compare and contrast spectrograms of soluble extracts from Fasciola hepatica adult worms from bile ducts of cattle with those from O. viverrini and O.felineus from experimentally infected hamsters. F. hepatica and Opisthorchis spp. shared common compounds including oxysterol-like metabolites, bile acids and DNA-adducts, but the spectrometric profiles of F. hepatica included far fewer compounds than Opisthorchis species. These findings support the postulate that parasitic oxysterol-like metabolites could be related to carcinogenesis associated to infection and they point to a molecular basis for the differences among major groups of liver flukes concerning infection-induced malignancy.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The aim of this study was to report the frequency of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in 22 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), as well as whether the seropositivity for autoantibodies differs between anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) positive and AQP4 negative NMO patients.
Demographic, medical records, and a profile of autoantibodies were evaluated in 22 NMO patients, including AQP4, anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic, anti-cyclic citrullinate peptide, rheumatoid factor, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-Smith antibodies (anti-Sm), anti-ribonucleoprotein, anti-nucleosome, and anti-Scl70. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin were measured.
The frequency of women was higher than men (95.5% vs. 4.5%) and 68.2% were Afro-Brazilians. Six (27.3%) patients presented other autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis (n=2), Graves’ disease (n=1), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n=1), systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis (n=1), and Raynaud’s phenomenon (n=1). The most frequent autoantibodies were anti-AQP4 (54.5%), anti-nucleosome (31.8%), ANA (27.3%), anti-TPO (22.7%), and anti-Tg (22.7%). Difference was not observed in the frequency of autoimmune disorders when the patients were compared according to their anti-AQP4 status.
The results of the present study underscored that the NMO patients present high frequency of autoantibodies against cellular antigens and the presence of autoimmune disorders. Further studies with large number of NMO patients may contribute to advances in the understanding of NMO disease mechanisms.
Many factors threaten the survival of marine turtles, such as incidental capture by fisheries, habitat degradation, pollution and diseases. One of the most important diseases is fibropapillomatosis (FP), characterized by the development of benign skin tumours. FP predominantly affects juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and involves a complex multifactorial aetiology. For several years, it has been noted that the prevalence of FP tends to be higher in marine environments under the influence of human activities, leading to the hypothesis that environmental pollutants play a role in the epidemiology of this disease. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are persistent organic pollutants with immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects in humans and wildlife. OC levels (α-BHC, β-BHC, α-endosulphan, β-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate, pp′-DDD, op′-DDD, pp′-DDE, op′-DDE, heptachlor, dicofol and mirex) were quantified through gas chromatography with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-μECD) in liver and fat samples from 64 juvenile green sea turtles. Specimens with and without FP were analysed, after being caught at three feeding areas off the Brazilian coast: Ubatuba, Praia Grande and Vitória. OC levels were comparable to those observed in similar studies, and no consistent difference was observed between sea turtles with and without FP. This study helps to elucidate the contamination profile in sea turtles caught at feeding areas off Brazil and confirms that green sea turtles are exposed to OCs, which may play a negative role in the health of this species.
Biometric relationships were recorded for 2431 male and female Panulirus echinatus sampled at Tamandaré coastal reefs, Pernambuco, Brazil. The following body measurements were taken: carapace length and width, abdomen length and width, total length, third and fifth pereiopod length, cephalothorax–abdomen and total weight. Twelve relationships were studied to compare the biometric characteristics of males and females. Eleven of them showed difference between the sexes. Comparing sexes with the same carapace length, males have a heavier cephalothorax and longer third and fifth pereiopods than females, whereas females are longer, wider, and have a heavier abdomen than males. For genders with the same total length, males are heavier and have a longer carapace than females, while females have a larger abdomen. For genders with the same abdomen length, males have a heavier abdomen than females. The relationships TWg/TL and AWg/AL showed positive allometric growth for the males. All other relationships involving weight, presented negative allometric growth for both sexes.
The Restinga Antwren (Thamnophilidae: Formicivora littoralis) is endemic to a small region on the coast of Rio de Janeiro state in southeastern Brazil. Currently, it is considered ‘Critically Endangered’ by IUCN due to continuing habitat loss within its very small and severely fragmented range. Data available to assess its conservation status, however, are scarce. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted bird surveys to produce more rigorous estimates of geographic range limits, available habitat, local population density, and global population size. We used these data and IUCN criteria to reassess the conservation status of the Restinga Antwren. We recorded the species in a new locality (Tucuns, Armação dos Búzios), expanding its range by 5 km from the easternmost known limit. The species was present in 65% of the points surveyed within its range, in restinga fragments that cover an area of c. 42 km2 (84% of the total restinga within the species’s range). We estimated that this bird has an Extent of Occurrence of 233.5 km2, an Area of Occupancy of 148 km2, and a global population size < 5,000 individuals. We therefore recommend downlisting Restinga Antwren from ‘Critically Endangered’ to ‘Endangered’. We also recommend that the Massambaba and the Pau Brasil Areas of Environmental Protection be transformed into Biological Reserves, to increase restrictions on human activities in the area and preserve crucial habitat for the Restinga Antwren.
Cercomacra carbonaria and Synallaxis kollari are passerine birds endemic to
the gallery forests of Roraima state in northernmost Brazil and adjacent Guyana.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists both as Vulnerable but they have
been removed from Brazil's list of threatened species because of data
deficiency. They are poorly known, reflecting both Roraima state's
distance from Brazil's main population centres and the inaccessibility
of their habitat. In 2004 and 2005, we conducted bird surveys along the major
rivers that provided previous sightings, and expanded records from only a
handful to several dozens. We found C.
carbonaria at 29% of the points surveyed, and estimated its local
population density at approximately 80 individuals km−2
and total population size to exceed 15,000 individuals. The species has 723
km2 of available habitat, 8% of which is inside conservation
units. We found S. kollari at 44% of the
points surveyed, and estimated its local population density as approximately 60
individuals km−2, with an estimated total population size
exceeding 5,000 individuals. It has 206 km2 of available habitat,
none of which is inside conservation units. We recommend that C. carbonaria be down-listed on the IUCN Red List
to the Near Threatened category, and that S.
kollari be listed as Endangered. Both species live in areas
vulnerable to habitat loss. We also recommend that both species re-enter the
Brazilian list of threatened species and highlight the importance of indigenous
reserves to their conservation.
Cercomacra carbonaria e Synallaxis kollari são aves
passeriformes das matas de galeria do Estado de Roraima em sua parte mais ao
norte do Brasil e da Guiana adjacente. Ambas as espécies
são catalogadas como “Vulneráveis”
pela lista vermelha de espécies ameaçadas da IUCN, mas
foram excluídas da lista de espécies ameaçadas
do Brasil devido è insuficiência de dados. Estas
espécies são pouco conhecidas, refletindo tanto a
distância do Estado de Roraima dos principais centros urbanos quanto
a inacessibilidade do seu hábitat. Em 2004 e 2005, realizamos censos
de aves anteriormente avistadas ao longo de rios maiores, aumentando assim os
registros de apenas alguns poucos números para diversas dezenas.
Encontramos C. carbonaria em 29% dos pontos
amostrados e estimamos sua densidade local em ∼80
indivíduos km−2 e o tamanho populacional total
em mais de 15.000 indivíduos. A espécie possui 723
km2 de habitat disponível, 8% do qual está
incluído em unidades de conservação.
Encontramos S. kollari em 44% dos pontos
amostrados e estimamos sua densidade populacional local em ∼60
indivíduos km−2, com uma estimativa de tamanho
populacional total em mais de 5,000 indivíduos. Esta
espécie tem 206 km2 de habitat disponível,
nenhum dos quais incluído em unidades de
conservação. Recomendamos que C.
carbonaria seja rebaixada para a categoria ‘Quase
Ameaçada’ e S. kollari
categorizada como ‘Ameaçada’ na lista vermelha
da IUCN. Ambas as espécies vivem em áreas
vulneráveis em relação è perda de
seu hábitat. Recomendamos, também, que ambas as
espécies sejam re-incluídas na lista de
espécies ameaçadas do Brasil, destacando a
importância das reservas indígenas para a sua
Information concerning the migration of thorium in natural environments is of interest in studies related to impact evaluations of mining and milling operations, to geochemical prospecting and at some point, to predict the long-term behavior of critical waste nuclides.
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